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" STAINLESS STEEL ... THE MIRACLE METAL " 1960s REPUBLIC STEEL PROMO FILM HISTORY OF STEEL 95994



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Made by Republic Steel, this color film is one of a series called "Stainless Steel...The Miracle Metal". This particular film features Dr. Carl Zapffe presenting a lecture on the history and development of stainless. It dates to 1960. Stainless steel is a group of ferrous alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium, a composition that prevents the iron from rusting and also provides heat-resistant properties.

Opening: Republic Steel presents Stainless Steel, the Miracle Metal. Part 1: Historical Development (:06-:42). Dr. Carl Zapffe, a metallurgist (and also an internationally known physicist, engineer and chemist), looks through a microscope. He then starts to explain the film's focus. He holds a piece of stainless steel. he holds rusted iron. He picks up a piece of iron ore. He shows a picture of the piece inside a dead bison and a viking boat along with tin being used on an old table. A restored Viking boat at a museum in Oslo has original nails in it going back many thousands of years. Steel and carbon inside the nail is shown in detail (:43-6:27). A Damascus blade, the Damascus steel make-up is explained. Dr. Zapffe explains how we'll go back in time to discuss metal. He holds a meteorite in his hand which was found in Normandy. Going back to the pictures, the sectioned meteorite is shown. The 18-8 is explained. The numbers 18/8 refer to the percentages of chromium and nickel in the stainless steel alloy. The "18" refers to the chromium content, which gives flatware its rust-resistance properties, and the "8" refers to the nickel content, which gives it its silver-like shine and some rust-resistance (6:28-11:28). In 1797, a chemist in Paris is working on a new mineral, in 1798, the man shows off chromium. The father of chromium is Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin. He hammers chromium with a hammer and is splits (11:29-15:00). The doctor talks about how stainless steel needs certain minerals and explains what is required (15:01-16:50). A stainless steel piece under a microscope without the proper makeup. Another piece from under a microscope is shown and again the makeup isn't correct. Berthier's experiments are shown on a chart, it is explained how carbon kept causing him a problem (16:51-19:35). Dr. Zapffe stands in front of sulfuric acid, water, nitric acid, citric acid, acetic acid, hydro-chloric acid. Steel is placed in each one of these solutions, the Dr. pulls the piece out of each and explains (19:36-20:50). He moves back to a chart and explains how the percentages were off with trying to attain stainless steel. Goldschmidt's crucible experiments are explained in a diagram (20:51-23:16). Dr. Zapffe shows a map and explains where chemists who had pure chromium experimented, England, Germany, and the USA. He goes into great detail while standing in front of the map (23:17-26:25). Back at another board, the Dr. points out Carbon, Chromium, Iron, and Nickel. He explains other facts about these metals (26:26-28:49). Dr. Zapffe continues to summarize what the important chemists discovered (28:50-29:23). End credits (29:24-29:33).

Republic Steel was founded as the Republic Iron and Steel Company in Youngstown, Ohio in 1899, and rose to become the nation's third largest producer. The company still exists as a subsidiary of Grupo Simec and produces Special Bar Quality (SBQ) steel bars.

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