8. England, France and Russia in the Middle East: Turkey, Iran, India #1812 #napoleon

In 1812, Russia fought not only with Napoleon.
On the eve of the invasion, a peace treaty was signed with Turkey and battles with Persia were still going.
Peter I also saw Russia as a bridge between Asia and Europe.
This required:
- to Secure the southern lands;
- to consolidate on the Black and Caspian Seas.
The wars of Catherine II seriously weakened the Ottoman Empire.
Napoleon took advantage of this when he embarked on the unsuccessful Egyptian campaign,
but pushed Turkey into a short-term alliance with its recent enemy.
By strengthening in the Balkans, he planned an anti-Russian coalition with Turkey and Persia.
His officers trained the Ottoman army, and diplomats fueled Istanbul's revanchism.
In Transcaucasia, General Kotlyarevsky fought with the Persian army of Abbas-Mirza.
Persia was supported by England: it provided military and financial assistance and defended the way to India.
Russia's victory and the Gulustan peace led to the beginning of the Big Game – a confrontation between England and Russia in Asia, the Middle and Far East.

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