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Existovala revolučná vojnová hrdinka Molly Pitcher?

Existovala revolučná vojnová hrdinka Molly Pitcher?


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Hrdinka revolučnej vojny, Molly Pitcher, bola prezývka ženy, ktorá údajne nosila vodu americkým vojakom počas bitky pri Monmouthe 28. júna 1778, predtým, ako prevzal vládu za svojho manžela na bojisku, keď už nebol schopný boj.

Aj keď neexistuje žiadny definitívny dôkaz o tom, kto bol Pitcher - a diskutuje sa o tom, či vôbec existovala -, najčastejšie bola identifikovaná ako Mary Hays McCauley. Mary sa narodila v Pensylvánii v roku 1754 (alebo možno 1744) a možno pracovala ako sluha, než sa vydala za Williama Haysa z Carlisle v Pensylvánii. Počas vojny slúžil Hays ako strelec v 4. delostrelectve kontinentálnej armády, zatiaľ čo Mária sa stala súčasťou skupiny žien, neskôr označovaných ako táborové nasledovníčky, ktoré cestovali s armádou a prevzali také povinnosti, ako je varenie, pranie a starostlivosť. pre chorých a zranených vojakov.

V bitke pri Monmouthe, ktorá sa odohrala v úmornom letnom dni v okrese Monmouth v štáte New Jersey, sa kontinentálne jednotky pod vedením generála Georga Washingtona postavili proti britským jednotkám pod velením generála Henryho Clintona. Mary priniesla vyprahnutým americkým jednotkám vodu, až kým sa jej manžel zrútil, buď z tepla, alebo po zranení, potom údajne zaujala jeho miesto a po zvyšok bitky pomáhala obsluhovať delo.

Vojak, ktorý bol svedkom tejto akcie, neskôr napísal o tom do svojho denníka, pričom sa neodvolával na ženu, ktorej sa to týka, menom: „Kým dorazila k nábojnici a mala jednu nohu tak ďaleko pred druhou, ako len mohla vykročiť, výstrel z dela od nepriateľa prešla priamo medzi jej nohy bez toho, aby spôsobila iné škody, ako odniesla celú spodnú časť spodničky. “

Bitka o Monmouth, najdlhší jediný deň bojov americkej revolúcie, sa skončila taktickou remízou. Po vojne sa Mary a jej manžel vrátili do Carlisle, kde o niekoľko rokov neskôr zomrel. Mary sa vydala za Johna McCauleyho, o ktorom sa vie málo. V roku 1822 jej štát Pennsylvania priznal ročný dôchodok 40 dolárov „za služby poskytnuté počas vojny“.

Po Máriinej smrti v roku 1832 noviny zaznamenali jej statočnosť počas vojny, ale neponúkli žiadne podrobnosti o tom, v ktorej bitke slúžila. V nasledujúcich desaťročiach sa šírili správy o Molly Pitcherovej, nemenovanej žene, ktorá v bitke pri Monmouthe obsluhovala delo. Mary Hays McCauley sa formálne spojila s hrdinkou revolučnej vojny v roku 1876, keď sa obyvatelia Carlisle rozhodli označiť jej hrob za hrob Molly Pitcher.

ČÍTAJTE VIAC: Divoké revolučné ženy v histórii


Životopis Molly Pitcherovej, hrdinky bitky pri Monmouthe

Molly Pitcher bolo fiktívne meno dané hrdinke, uctievané za to, že v čase americkej revolúcie zaujala miesto svojho manžela pri nakladaní dela v bitke pri Monmouthe, 28. júna 1778. Stotožnenie Molly Pitcherovej, známej skôr na populárnych obrázkoch ako kapitánka Molly, s Mary McCaulyovou, prišlo až pri príležitosti stého výročia americkej revolúcie. V čase revolúcie bola Molly bežnou prezývkou pre ženy s menom Mary.

Väčšina príbehu Mary McCaulyovej je rozprávaná z ústnych príbehov alebo súdnych a iných právnych dokumentov, ktoré korelujú s niektorými časťami ústnej tradície. Vedci sa rozchádzajú v mnohých podrobnostiach, vrátane toho, ako sa volal jej prvý manžel (slávny manžel, ktorý skolaboval a ktorého nahradila pri dele) alebo dokonca ani to, či je Molly Pitcher histórie. Legenda Mollyho džbánu môže byť úplne folklórna alebo kompozitná.


Džbán, Molly

Džbán, Molly (1744?/1754? �), hrdinka revolučnej vojny. Legenda o “Molly Pitcher ” je založená aspoň čiastočne na činoch Mary (Molly) Ludwig Hays McCauleyovej, ktorú možno prezývka vzťahovala iba na ňu samotnú, alebo mohli byť použité spoločne na opis všetkých ženských nasledovníkov �mp ”, ktorí pomáhali kontinentálnej armáde.

Dcéra nemeckých prisťahovalcov, ktorí sa usadili v New Jersey, bola v roku 1769 Mary Ludwig sluhou doktora Williama Irvina v Carlisle v Pensylvánii. V tom roku sa vydala za holiča Johna Caspera Haysa. Pôvodne slúžil v prvom pennsylvánskom delostrelectve plukovníka Thomasa Proctora (1775 �), potom sa v januári 1777 znovu zaradil na miesto súkromného vojaka v siedmom pensylvánskom pluku Dr. (dnes plk.) Irvina. O niečo neskôr sa k nemu Mary pridala v tábore.

28. júna 1778 sa Mary Hays preslávila v bitke pri Monmouthe v New Jersey. Keď padol zranený, nosila vedrá alebo džbány s vodou delostreleckej posádke svojho manžela. Nahradila ho pri kanóne a po zvyšok záberu slúžila pištoli.

John Hays zomrel o niekoľko rokov neskôr a Mary Haysová sa vydala za iného veterána, Johna (možno Georga) McCauleyho, okolo roku 1792. Potom, čo druhýkrát ovdovela a mala stále väčšie finančné problémy, 21. februára 1822 požiadala o penziu vojaka vdovu. namiesto toho jej udelila rentu 40 dolárov ako uznanie za jej vlastné služby počas revolúcie. Po jej smrti sa stala legendárnou postavou a na jej pohrebisku v Carlisle bol neskôr postavený pamätník.
[Pozri tiež Revolučná vojna: Vojenské a diplomatické kurzy Ženy v armáde.]

William Davison Perrine, Molly Pitcher z Monmouth County, New Jersey a kapitán Molly z Fort Washington, New York, 1778 �. 1937.
Linda Grant De Pauw, Ženy v boji: Revolučná vojnová skúsenosť, ozbrojené sily a spoločnosť, 7 (1981), s. 209 a#x201326.
Janice E. McKenney, ‘ Women in Combat ’: Comment, Armed Forces and Society, 8 (1982), pp. 686 �.

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John Whiteclay Chambers II "Džbán, Molly." Oxfordský spoločník americkej vojenskej histórie. . Encyclopedia.com. 16. júna 2021 a https://www.encyclopedia.com & gt.

John Whiteclay Chambers II "Džbán, Molly." Oxfordský spoločník americkej vojenskej histórie. . Encyclopedia.com. (16. júna 2021). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pitcher-molly

John Whiteclay Chambers II "Džbán, Molly." Oxfordský spoločník americkej vojenskej histórie. . Získané 16. júna 2021 z Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pitcher-molly

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Postaví sa skutočný džbán Molly, prosím?

Na prvý pohľad sa zdá, že hľadanie skutočnej Molly Pitcherovej, legendárnej hrdinky americkej revolučnej vojny, je rovnako zbytočné ako pátranie po Paulovi Bunyanovi a jeho modrom vola, Babe. Legendárne postavy sú napriek tomu fascinované a zvyčajne obsahujú jadro historickej autenticity. V prípade patriotky, kanonierky Molly Pitcherovej, môže byť odstránenie fiktívneho zo skutočného sveta určitou výzvou. Zastávala úctyhodné miesto vo vlasteneckej tradícii americkej revolúcie, hneď vedľa Betsy Rossovej, zatiaľ čo skutočné ženské patriotky ako Deborah Sampsonová, revolučná vojakka (alias Robert Shurtleff) alebo multitalentovaná, učená samouk, dramatička, propagandista a historik Mercy Otis Warren sa len zriedka spomínajú dokonca aj v textoch histórie prieskumu. Dve storočia po revolúcii popularita Molly prekvitá a siaha do virtuálneho sveta kyberpriestoru, ktorý zvečňujú webové stránky na internete, na ktorých môžu prehliadače diskutovať o tom, či Molly Pitcher bola alebo nebola feministka. Aj keď všetky tieto dobromyseľné špekulácie neviedli k ničomu podstatnému, je celkom pravdepodobné, že historický výskum môže stále poskytnúť zaujímavé poznatky o Molly a čo je dôležitejšie, o úlohe žien, ktoré slúžili v armáde počas americkej revolučnej revolúcie. Vojna.

Historička Linda Grant De Pauwová, ktorej štúdie skúmali úlohy žien vo Vojne za nezávislosť, sa domnieva, že Molly Pitcher je iba osobnosťou vytvorenou z mnohých zdrojov. Existuje však niekoľko životaschopných uchádzačov o kanonizáciu ako skutočná Molly Pitcherová, ako napríklad manželka mladého vojaka menom Mary Ludwig Hayes. Mary Ludwig, dcéra nemeckých prisťahovalcov, sa vydala za holiča Johna Haya v roku 1769. Do vojnového záznamu sa prvýkrát zapísala 28. júna 1778, keď sa dva roky po tom, ako jej manžel slúžil v spoločnosti kapitána Františka Proctora, zapísala do služby v r. pennsylvánske delostrelectvo. Mary bola mužmi v jej spoločnosti opísaná ako dvadsaťdvaročná negramotná tehotná žena, ktorá fajčila a žuvala tabak a nadávala rovnako ako ktorýkoľvek z mužských vojakov. Mary sa pre svoju neobvyklú odvahu a tvrdú prácu pod paľbou páčila vojakom.1 Počas bitky pri Monmouthe si Mary Ludwig Hayes vyslúžila prezývku Molly Pitcher za vyčerpávajúcu prácu v zásobovaní pitnou vodou vojakov unavených z boja. teplo boja. Keď jej manžel skolaboval od úpalu (niektoré zdroje uvádzajú, že bol zranený v bitke), Mary zaujala jeho miesto pri dele a predviedla ho šikovne a hrdinsky. Ako mnoho iných vlastencov, tradícia uvádza, že sa jej dostalo osobného poďakovania generála Washingtona.2 Keď jej manžel v roku 1789 zomrel na následky bojových zranení, Mary Hayes sa vydala za Georga McCauleyho a asi štyridsaťštyri rokov po vojne udelil štát Pennsylvania jej s ročným dôchodkom štyridsať dolárov za hrdinstvo v Monmouthe. Zomrela 22. januára 1833 a je pochovaná na Old Graveyard (názov mesta) v Pensylvánii neďaleko Carlisle. Počas stého výročia revolúcie v roku 1876 občania okresu Cumberland označili jej hrob za pocteného vojaka. Pamätníky bojiska v Monmouthe a pri jej hrobe dnes pripomínajú Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley (t.j. Molly Pitcher) za jej hrdinský prínos k americkej nezávislosti.

Jej služobný záznam a miesto historickej postavy potvrdzuje aj dokumentácia jedného očitého svedka v bitke pri Monmouthe, Pvt. Joseph Plumb Martin, ktorý dokazuje, že Molly Pitcher bola viac ako len legenda. Vo svojom najpútavejšom vojnovom denníku opísal, ako počas bitky spozoroval ženu, ktorá strieľa z dela.3 História je vojakovi Martinovi navždy dlžná za to, že má duchaprítomnosť spomenúť na udatnosť tejto ženy a na súvislosť s týmto humorným incidentom.

Podľa historika Jamesa Kirbyho Martina bola ženou, ktorú Joseph počas bitky pri Monmouthe pozoroval strieľať z dela, Mary Ludwig Hayes. Ak by to bol jediný dôkaz, zdalo by sa presvedčivé, že Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley sa osvedčuje ako skutočná Molly Pitcherová. Ako sa však ukazuje, o titul súperia aj ďalší kandidáti Molly Pitcher.

Identifikácia skutočnej Molly Pitcherovej je ešte zakrytá skutočnosťou, že Margaret Corbinová slúžila v rovnakom delostreleckom pluku ako Mary Ludwig Hayes. Ona a jej manžel John slúžili pod kpt. Francisom Proctorom v Prvej rote pennsylvánskeho delostrelectva. Margaret Corbinová, prvá žena v dôchodku v rámci kontinentálneho kongresu, má jedinečnú česť byť jediným vojakom revolučnej vojny pochovaným na Vojenskej akadémii vo West Pointe v New Yorku. Vlastenecká literatúra bežne hovorí o Margaret Corbinovej ako o „kapitánke Molly“. Linda Grant De Pauw opisuje Margaret Corbinovú ako transvestitovú vojakku, ktorá mala na sebe uniformu, ale nepokúšala sa skryť svoje pohlavie. 5 V bitke pri Fort Washington, keď bol John Corbin zabitý, Margaret zaujala svoje miesto na palebnej čiare a bola zranená. v zásnubách s Britmi. V zajatí Britov bola následne prepustená a pri strážnej službe preradená do zboru invalidov vo West Pointu. Jej meno je uvedené aj na vypúšťacích valčekoch neplatných hodov pluku za apríl 1783. Tieto udalosti svedčia o tom, že armáda uznala Margaret Corbinovú za pravidelnú vojáčku a ako takú s ňou aj zaobchádzala. Okrem toho dôstojníci z jej pluku úspešne požiadali Corbin, aby v ten istý rok poberala štátne aj federálne dôchodky. 6. júla 1779 sa uskutočnil kontinentálny kongres.

Po vojne žila invalidná Margaret v sťažených podmienkach v okrese Westmoreland. Zomrela vo veku štyridsaťosem rokov 16. januára 1800 na následky svojich vojnových zranení.8

Kandidátkou číslo tri je Deborah Sampson. Deborah bola jedinou ženou okrem Corbinovej, ktorá dostala federálny dôchodok za vojenskú službu. Bola prijatá ako Robert Shurtleff a je prekvapivým príkladom patriotiek-vojačiek, ktoré bojovali za nezávislosť. Počas vojny sa Deborah prezliekla za muža a prihlásila sa do boja so Štvrtým Massachusettským plukom. Vďaka hladkej pleti a vysokému hlasu ju jej spolubojovníci prezývali „Molly“. Po vojne bola krátko zamestnaná strýkom na jeho farme v Stoughtone v Massachusetts. V roku 1784 sa v Sharone v Massachusetts vydala za Benjamina Gannetta, chudobného farmára, a v rokoch 1786 až 1790 porodila tri deti, Earla, Gilberta a Patience.

V roku 1792 Deborah požiadala štát Massachusetts o vrátenie peňazí. Mala niekoľko dokumentov na overenie jej služby, vrátane čestného vyhlásenia plukovníka Henryho Jacksona, ktoré svedčí o tom, že Robert Shurtleff slúžil vo svojom pluku a dostal čestné absolutórium. V očakávaní, že by mohla byť spochybnená jej identita, bola tiež držiteľkou osvedčenia podpísaného v Dedhame v štáte Massachusetts (z 10. decembra 1791) kapitána Eliphalta Thorpa, ktorý sa zaručil, že to bola pani Deborah Gannettová, ktorá sa prihlásila ako vojak. Jej petíciu schválil zákonodarný zbor a v tom istom roku ju podpísal guvernér John Hancock. Je tiež veľmi pravdepodobne prvou Američankou, ktorá sa objavila na divadelnom javisku. V snahe zvýšiť svoj príjem Deborah Gannett účinkovala v bostonských a newyorských divadlách a predstavila sedem dolárov. 9 V roku 1802 Merkúr a Nové Anglicko Palladium, bostonské noviny uviedli, že „pani Gannettová vybavená v úplnej uniforme prejde manuálnym cvičením. Celé to skončí piesňou a zborom„ Boh ochraňuj šestnásť štátov. “10 Neskôr sa uviedlo, že pochodovala dvadsaťsedem manévrov, oblečených v modrobielej uniforme, vyzbrojených mušketou, po ktorých nasledovala reč, ktorá bola do značnej miery ospravedlnením za to, že „ste odbočili z kvetnatej cesty ženskej jemnosti.“ 11 Deborah, ktorá porušila spoločenské konvencie viacerými spôsobmi Sampsonove pódiové vystúpenia, ktoré predchádzali ranným abolicionistkám a feministkám, sú pozoruhodné tým, že sa stala prvou Američankou, ktorá mala verejné prednášky pre zmiešané publikum mužov a žien.

Vplyvná obhajkyňa Deborah Gannettovej, slávny strieborník a rytec Paul Revere, v jej mene niekoľkokrát písala o dôchodok. List kongresmanovi Williamovi Eustisovi z Massachusetts potvrdzuje, že dvadsaťjeden rokov po vojne bola Deborah stále stigmatizovaná ako žena, ktorá sa obliekla za mužského vojaka. Revere sa v jej mene obrátil na kongresmana a tvrdil, že upravila svoje spôsoby:

Vysvetlil, že Deborahovo zhoršené zdravie bolo dôsledkom rany, ktorú dostala v boji. Kým bol Benjamin, jej manžel, dobrý muž, v podnikaní neuspel, aj keď Gannettovci mali niekoľko akrov poľnohospodárskej pôdy, boli veľmi chudobní. Na záver svojej petície sa Revere obrátil na svojho kongresmana a zopakoval, že pani Gannettová bola skutočne ženská:

Je príznačné, že Deborah považovala za potrebné ospravedlniť sa na pódiu za to, že odbočila z cesty ženskosti, a taktiež bolo pre Revereu zásadné presvedčiť kongresmana Eustisa, že pani Gannettová sa po vojne zotavila a udržala si svoju ženskosť. Deborah tým, že sa prezliekla za muža, utiekla sama z domu a vstúpila do armády, porušila všetky pravidlá spoločenskej konvencie. Do dvadsiateho storočia mala mladá dáma iba dva legitímne dôvody na odchod z domu - manželstvo alebo smrť rodičov. Bolo nemysliteľné, aby bola slobodná žena sama bez toho, aby riskovala poškodenie svojej povesti. Populárna literatúra oplývala hororovými príbehmi o deviantkách, ktoré utrpeli následky odchodu z domu a samostatného života. Stretli sa s následným morálnym úpadkom nelegitímneho pôrodu, prostitúcie alebo dokonca smrti.13 Deborahinu biografiu z tohto kultúrneho hľadiska nemožno najlepšie chápať ako prehnaný popis jej vojenských činov, ale ako ospravedlnenie jej komunity. Jej životopisec Herman Mann opakovane zdôrazňoval, že počas všetkých Deborahiných vojnových eskapád si zachovala cudnosť. Deborah evidentne potrebovala muža s prestížou Paula Revera, aby za ňu hovoril a bránil jej ženskosť.

V roku 1809, po dvadsiatich rokoch podávania petícií federálnej vláde, Deborah dostávala invalidný dôchodok štyri doláre mesačne. (Veteráni mužského pohlavia, ktorí tvrdili, že sú zdravotne postihnutí, dostávali päť dolárov mesačne.) Z veľkej časti kvôli zásahu spoločnosti Revere bola výška dôchodku retroaktívna do roku 1803. Za tieto peniaze boli Gannettovi schopní postaviť na svojej výmere dom z šindľov a vysadiť niekoľko stromov. . Dôchodky, ktoré Deborah poberala, však ich chudobu ani dlh nikdy nezbavili. Krátko po poberaní dôchodku Deborah napísala, že poďakuje Paulovi Revereovi, a požiadala ho, aby si požičal desať dolárov.14 Keď Monroeova administratíva schválila zákon o dôchodku z roku 1818, znova podala žiadosť. Dôchodok z roku 1818, navrhnutý špeciálne na pomoc chudobným veteránom, sľuboval vládnu pomoc tým, ktorí ešte tridsaťpäť rokov po vojne bojovali. Od žiadateľov sa požadovalo, aby predložili osobný súpis svojho majetku a čistého majetku vrátane nehnuteľností a potrieb pre domácnosť. (Vláda nepožadovala, aby bola v súpise odhadnutá hodnota oblečenia a posteľnej bielizne.) V žiadosti si päťdesiatosemročná Deborah Gannettová a matka troch detí vyžiadala celkový majetok vo výške dvadsať dolárov, ktorý zahŕňal aj jej oblečenie. Aby mala nárok na nový dôchodok, musela sa vzdať bývalého invalidného dôchodku štyridsaťosem dolárov ročne a štátneho dôchodku štyri doláre mesačne. Deborah dostávala sedemdesiatšesť dolárový štipendium asi sedem rokov.15

Po jej smrti v roku 1827 jej manžel (veril, že je jediným vdovcom, ktorý požiadal o dôchodok) nemohol mať nárok na dávky, pretože boli zosobášení až v roku l784.16 V roku 1831 bol osemdesiattriročný Gannett chorý a chudobný. Na prežití závisel od miestnej charity a rozhodol sa požiadať vládu o dôchodok. Gannettovo dôchodkové čestné vyhlásenie opisuje život Deborah po vojne. Uviedol, že bola čestne prepustená, a poskytol presný popis svojej vojenskej služby. Veril tiež, že sa stratili jej doklady o prepustení. Podľa pána Gannetta jej vojnové zranenie, mušketa uložená v stehne štyridsaťšesť rokov, „ju sprevádzala životom a urýchlila jej smrť“. Ďalší svedok, pán P. Parsons, vypovedal, že Deborah nemohla kvôli svojej rane vykonávať žiadnu prácu. V dôsledku toho bol Benjamin vystavený ťažkým zdravotným nákladom viac ako dvadsať rokov predtým, ako Deborah začala poberať dôchodok. V roku 1831 Gannett stále dlžil lekárom za liečbu šesťsto dolárov. 4. marca 1831 udelil zvláštny kongresský akt Benjaminovi Gannettovi štedrejší dôchodok, než aký kedy Deborah dostala. Toto štipendium vo výške osemdesiat dolárov ročne malo pokračovať „počas a počas jeho prirodzeného života“. Štyri roky po smrti Deborah Samson Gannettovej Kongres v dôchodku priznanom Benjaminovi uviedol, že „celá história americkej revolúcie nezaznamenáva žiadny iný podobný príklad ženského hrdinstva, vernosti a odvahy“. Na základe dostupných dôkazov je presnejšie konštatovať, že hoci ide o históriu nezaznamenáva hrdinské činy mnohých vojenských žien americkej revolučnej vojny, my nemôže predpokladať že Deborah Sampson Gannett bola mimoriadna.17

Historický záznam predstavuje ďalších kandidátov, ktorí sú príliš početní na to, aby sme ich tu mohli spomenúť. Dostupné dôkazy však vyvolávajú otázku - kto je skutočná Molly Pitcherová? Odpoveď je celkom jednoduchá - všetky a nikto z nich. Molly Pitcher je, ako Linda Grant De Pauw naznačila, legendárna osobnosť postavená z príbehov o statočnosti a odvahe revolučných žien. Meno Molly Pitcher je súhrnným generickým výrazom, pretože „G.I. Joe“ bolo prezývkou pre vojaka alebo vojakov v 2. svetovej vojne. Meno Molly Pitcher, podobne ako výraz G.I. Joe je bežnou nálepkou nespočetných bezmenných žien a mužov, ktorí sú anonymne poctení za svoju hrdinskú službu. Pretože nikto nemôže byť presne identifikovaný ako Molly, mnohé ženy sa kvalifikujú na to, že sa im hovorí čestným názvom Molly Pitcher. Stovky, možno tisíce žien, slúžili nielen ako manželky s muníciou, ktoré obsluhovali a pálili zo zbraní, ale aj v armáde a koloniálnych milíciách. Aj keď sa toto hľadanie skutočnej Molly Pitcherovej zdá na prvý pohľad dosť márne akademické úsilie, pri bližšom skúmaní v skutočnosti prináša nielen jasnejšie pochopenie mnohostranných úloh, ktoré ženy hrali, ale aj určité indície o vyššom počte osôb, ktoré sa angažovali v vojnové úsilie. Aj keď sú iba dve ženy, Betsy Ross a Molly Pitcher, zaradené do revolučnej histórie, hlavný prínos žien k získaniu nezávislosti bol očividne prehliadaný. Prečo tieto ženy zostali tak dlho neuznané? Tento vypovedajúci dohľad odhaľuje niečo z prevládajúceho postoja k ženám v osemnástom storočí.

Širšiu, aktívnejšiu a vojenskejšiu úlohu žien najskôr navrhla štúdia Waltera Blumenthala o ženách v revolučnej vojne, v ktorej označil za prívrženkyne tábora mnohé ženy, ktoré slúžili ako zdravotné sestry, kuchárky a vojenské pomocníčky. k vojnovému úsiliu pozostávali z neoficiálnych odkazov v literatúre alebo mytologizovaných náčrtov Molly Pitcher a Betsy Ross. Bol to Blumenthal, ktorý ako prvý navrhol, aby sa na vojenskom úsilí zúčastnil značný počet žien v koloniálnom obyvateľstve.

Pri skúmaní komisárskych záznamov a vojenských rozkazov vypočítal počet žien, ktoré nasledovali konkrétne pluky. Pretože Briti vyznamenali udržanie najvyššieho počtu stúpencov tábora s pomerom žien k mužom na jednej až ôsmich, Blumenthal odhadoval počet stúpencov tábora v burgoynskej armáde na zhruba tisíc žien až osem tisíc mužov.19 Medzi Američanmi síl, usúdil, že počet stúpencov tábora je menší, pretože je nedostatok jedla a neschopnosť kontinentálnej armády ich udržať. Podľa Washingtonových príkazov nemal podiel žien v táboroch prekročiť pomer jedna na trinásť mužov. Pretože kombinované bojové sily kontinentálnej armády a koloniálnych milícií nikdy neprekročili štyridsaťtisíc vojakov v teréne súčasne, za predpokladu, že Blumenthalov pomer trinásť k jednému by v ktoromkoľvek období poskytol asi tri tisíce stúpencov tábora.

Napriek tomu, že štúdia Blumenthal je o úlohe prívržencov tábora veľmi informatívna, jeho návrh, aby ich do táborov lákali predovšetkým voľné ženy „giddiate uniformou“ alebo možnosťou obstarania dávok rumu, je nepresný. Jeho zaobchádzanie s táborovými stúpencami neuznáva, že hlavnou motiváciou nasledovať armády nebolo romantické dobrodružstvo, ale bol dôsledkom samotnej vojny. Mnoho civilistov, ktorých domy boli zničené, bolo vysídlených a opustených. Ženy bez domova, vrátane vojenských manželiek, slobodných matiek a vdov, utiekli do armády kvôli ochrane a nádeji na denné dávky pre seba a svoje deti.

Blumenthalova zásadná štúdia stúpencov tábora však spochybnila ďalší výskum s cieľom zistiť, koľko ďalších žien slúžilo aktívnej vojenskej službe. Aj keď je každý odhad zvláštny, skúmanie napriek tomu odhaľuje významné podrobnosti o vlasteneckých ženách.

Bližšie skúmanie vojnovej korešpondencie a dokumentov Georga Washingtona a ďalších dôstojníkov odhaľuje, že postupne začali prijímať a oceňovať prínos wmenov v armáde. Začali byť považovaní nielen za pomocných alebo polovojenských „vešiakov“ v tábore alebo za prostitútky. Washington pôvodne zakázal ženám v táboroch predpokladať, že sú obťažujúce a majú voľnú morálku. Sťažoval sa najmä na tehotné ženy a ženy s deťmi, ktoré boli „upchatím hnutia“. 20 Ako vojna postupovala, generál Washington uznával hodnotu táborových žien pre prežitie vojakov a pre konečný víťazstvo a nabádal svojich mužov, aby sa k ženám správali ako k pravidelnému armádnemu personálu.

Jeden z farebnejších príbehov o táborových stúpencoch, ktorý opisuje ich zúfalý stav, je Hannah Winthrop. Sledovala, ako Burgoynove vojská pochodujú Bostonom, a napísala svojmu priateľovi Mercy Otisovi Warrenovi o tomto predstavení.

Linda Grant De Pauw tvrdí, že „desaťtisíce žien boli zapojené do aktívneho boja“ počas revolučnej vojny v troch odlišných oblastiach: tie, ktoré slúžili v kontinentálnej armáde, označovali ako ženy armády tie, ktoré narukovali, nosili uniformy a slúžili v r. pravidelné sily a ženy, ktoré slúžili ako pobočky v štátnych milíciách alebo v poľných nemocniciach alebo ako táborové nasledovníčky. S odvolaním sa na spomienky mužov, ktorí slúžili, táborové rozkazy veliacich dôstojníkov a armádne záznamy, ktoré periodicky započítavali ženy z armády na účely hodnotenia dávok, varuje, že predstavy o ženách v armáde výlučne ako prostitútky alebo stúpenkyne tábora sú zavádzajúce. Ženy „začarovaného charakteru“ alebo stúpenkyne tábora boli predovšetkým civilistky a nepodliehali vojenským rozkazom ani disciplíne. Počíta s tým, že až dvadsaťtisíc žien mohlo slúžiť ako vojenské ženy, ale iba niekoľko stoviek slúžilo v uniformách a „na rozdiel od táborových stúpencov boli vojenské ženy podrobené vojenskej disciplíne.“ 22 Keď boli vzhľadom na vojenské rozkazy sa od nich očakávalo, že ich budú vykonávať rovnakým spôsobom ako mužskí vojaci. Keď to neurobili, páchatelia, ako napríklad Mary Johnson, v Valley Forge, boli postavení pred vojenský súd. Ženy nedostali zaplatené za ponuré ponožky a varenie jedál pre mužov, ale boli najaté, aby ich posilnili ako podporné jednotky v lekárskom zbore a delostrelectve. Verí, že pre ženy ako táborové stúpenkyne bolo také ťažké prežiť, že sa mnohé rozhodli vstúpiť do armády, aby im zaistili dávky a zaplatili. De Pauw opisuje ženy, ktoré slúžili v delostrelectve, t. J. Molly Pitchers, ako bežné manželky, ktoré vystupovali ako zástupkyne manželov, vycvičené v streľbe z kanónov a pripravené na okamžité „zastanie“ za svojich manželov.

Iní historici vypočítali počet žien, ktoré slúžili v aktívnej vojenskej službe. Elizabeth Cometti odhaduje, že až dvadsaťtisíc Američaniek sa pripojilo k kontinentálnej armáde slúžiacej ako zdravotné sestry a nosiacej vodu a strelivo pre delostrelecké pluky. Neidentifikuje tieto ženy ako ani prívrženkyne tábora, ani uniformovaných vojakov, ale príslušníčky rodín vojakov, tj matky, manželky a dcéry, ktoré dostávali odmeny a stravné a podliehali vojenskej disciplíne.23 Cometti uznáva iba „hŕstku žien“ ktorí sa obliekali ako vojaci a bojovali ako pravidelné jednotky, aj keď im vojenské predpisy zakazovali nosiť uniformy.

Okrem vojnových denníkov vojakov, zoznamov potravinových dávok, vojenskej korešpondencie a všeobecných rozkazov je pokračujúce pátranie po Molly Pitchers výrazne posilnené aj do značnej miery nevyužitým zdrojom historických dôkazov - žiadosťami o dôchodkový spis Revolučná vojna. Tieto súbory obsahujú svedectvá vojakov z revolučnej vojny a poskytujú bohatý zdroj vojenskej, sociálnej a rodinnej histórie. Takýmto príkladom je dôchodkové čestné vyhlásenie veterána Lemuela Cooka. Ako očitý svedok Cornwallisovej kapitulácie v Yorktowne opísal hrozný fyzický stav stúpencov tábora, ktorí posilnili britské jednotky, ako napríklad „staré diabolské ženy bez čižiem a obuvi a s pol litrom vší na nich“ .24 nie je dôvod predpokladať, že by sa americké prívrženkyne tábora stali priaznivejším. Hoci historik Blumenthal a veterán Cook charakterizovali tieto ženy ako nízky život v koloniálnej spoločnosti, ostatní dôchodcovia uvádzajú iný opis. Veterán Alexander Milliner, ktorý slúžil ako bubenícky chlapec v kontinentálnej armáde, opísal svoju matku, nasledovníčku tábora, ako „angličtinu, vysokoškoláčku, ktorá rozumela všetkým jazykom a bola učiteľkou“. Alexander vo svojej žiadosti o dôchodok vypovedal, že jeho matka sa dobrovoľne rozhodla slúžiť ako práčka v táboroch, len aby bola s ním.25

Ostatné aplikácie v dôchodkových súboroch, konkrétne záznamy o vdovách po revolučnej vojne, majú veľký potenciál pre ďalšie štúdie ani nie tak o úlohe vojenských žien, ale o ich ťažkej situácii po vojne. Tieto ženy pôvodne žiadali o dôchodky, aby vybrali všetky nevyplatené platy armády kvôli svojim zosnulým manželom. Niektorí boli odškodnení neskôr, keď boli vdovecké dávky uzákonené.

Sarah Osborn Benjamin je vhodným príkladom. Jej žiadosť o dôchodok obsahuje zdĺhavé čestné vyhlásenie o jej živote nasledovníčky tábora a mnoho podrobností o jej vojenskej službe. V roku 1780, keď sa Aaron Osborn zaradil do tretieho newyorského pluku kontinentálnych síl, trval na tom, aby ho do služby sprevádzala jeho manželka Sarah. Sarah hovorí, že v ich prvom tábore boli len dve ďalšie ženy - manželky poručíka Formana a seržanta Lambersona. V armáde strávila asi tri roky. Počas tejto doby mala dve deti, Phoebe a Aarona mladšieho. Na Sarah, ktorá žila s vojakmi, sa musel pozerať dosť žalostne. Zatiaľ čo sa utáborili so svojim manželom a rodinou neďaleko Philadelphie, niektoré kvakerske dámy navštevujúce tábor sa nad ňou zľutovali, naliehali na ňu, aby odišla, a ponúkli jej azyl. Sarah im vysvetlila, že nemôže, pretože ju manžel odmietol nechať tam, keď armáda obnovila pochod. V bitke pri Yorktowne zaujala ona a ďalšie ženy svoje miesto hneď za americkými stanmi. Mužom v zákopoch umyli, upravili, uvarili a podali galóny kávy spolu s hovädzím mäsom a chlebom.26 Po prepustení zostala s manželom blízko svojho posledného tábora v New Windsore v New Yorku (neďaleko West Pointu). Krátko na to ju aj s deťmi opustil jej manžel. Sarah počula zvesti, že sa usadil neďaleko Newburghu v New Yorku s inou ženou. Išla tam, aby sa mu postavila a zistila, že sa oženil s mladou ženou menom Polly Sloat. Sarah sa vrátila do svojho rodiska Blooming Grove v Orange County v New Yorku, kde sa stretla a vydala sa za veterána revolučnej vojny Johna Benjamina. Keď John v roku 1827 zomrel, nemala nárok na dôchodok. Ale v novembri 1837, vo veku osemdesiatjeden rokov, získala kvalifikáciu a bol jej priznaný dôchodok ako vdova po Osbornovi.27 Dostávala dôchodok vo výške osemdesiatosem dolárov ročne a v dôchodkových listinách zostala dvadsaťsedem rokov.28

Dôchodkové zoznamy nielenže vyplňujú niektoré podrobnosti o vojnovom úsilí žien a opisujú ich ekonomický boj a sociálne skúsenosti v novej republike, ale vyvolávajú aj ďalšie otázky. Je zrejmé, prečo bolo tak málo žien kompenzovaných za vlasteneckú službu svojej krajine? The Revolutionary War pension rolls contains about eighty thousand pension applications. With the exception of two women, Margaret Corbin and Deborah Sampson, all of the applicants were men. For this study, the files of 1,000 male veterans that contained the applications for 350 revolutionary war widows were analyzed. The discovery of Sarah Osborn Benjamin's application presupposes that other Revolutionary wives who had served in the military as well were not pensioned.

Trying to assess just how many Revolutionary War women served but were not compensated can be perplexing because the military evidence is deficient. Sarah's affidavit is unique. She disclosed her story despite the humiliation of her husband's bigamy and her abandonment. Her testimony suggests that other wives may have followed their husbands and served as well. As already mentioned, many women are not identifiable in the record because they used male names, masquerading as men in order to serve. Bearing all of this in mind, Sarah's testimony of life in the camps advances the question—why are the testimonies of the other women who served in the camps missing?

Faced with this silence, Linda Kerber's astute observation on the war's impact on gender roles offers some enlightenment. In the postwar period, leading Americans constructed the ideology of Republican motherhood as an attempt to reinstate the domestic sphere for women and carefully selected those attributes to assign to females that would maintain pride, decency, and the ritual of self-respect. "But," Kerber argues, "they denied the most frightening elements of women's wartime experiences. There was no room in the new construction for the disorderly women who had emptied pisspots on stamp tax agents, intimidated hoarders, or marched with Washington and Greene." In restoring order—patriarchal order—to American society, it was essential to deny the disordered behavior that had occurred during the War for Independence. The military women could not be rewarded because to do so would have dredged up the most disturbing aspects of the Revolution. Thus, Kerber concludes, "the women of the army were denied as the Shaysites were denied."29 Women such as Sarah Osborn Benjamin, Margaret Corbin, or Deborah Sampson were very likely regarded by Republican society as coarse, unfeminine, and of loose morals because they had cohabited with the soldiers. Their wartime exploits were not exemplary of Republican womanhood, not something to boast or write about, and certainly not the sort of thing a lady would tell her grandchildren. This would certainly explain why Deborah Sampson was compelled to apologise publicly on stage for her part in the war and why Paul Revere felt it necessary to assure Congressmen Eustis that she had returned to a more feminine role as wife and mother.

It is interesting to note that the only two women who were granted federal veterans pensions had one thing in common that the other courageous Molly Pitchers lacked: male sponsorship. Paul Revere had acted on Deborah's behalf and petitioned for her pension. (It also bears noting that her husband, Benjamin Gannett, was granted a special pension by Congress at a time when widows were refused benefits.30) Margaret Corbin was compensated when officers of the Pennsylvania Regiment petitioned on her behalf. Despite the extraordinary service of all of the Molly Pitchers in the American Revolution, the Republic that was established was still a man's world. As female veterans returned to a patriarchal society where their contribution went unrewarded and largely unrecognized, only the heroic imagery of Molly Pitcher commemorated their patriotism.

1. Robert Leckie, George Washington's War: The Saga of the American Revolution (l992), p. 486.

2. There are several versions of this story as well. Either George Washington merely complimented Mary Hayes, thanked her, or bestowed some reward. Walter Blumenthal states that Washington gave Mary a gold piece and promoted her to sergeant for her bravery during the Battle of Monmouth however, there is no evidence in the military records of her having been promoted.

3. Joseph Plumb Martin, Ordinary Courage: The Revolutionary War Adventures of Joseph Plumb Martin, vyd. James Kirby Martin (1993), p. 80.

5. Linda Grant De Pauw, "Women in Combat: The Revolutionary War Experience," Armed Forces and Society 7 (Winter 1981): 219.

6. William Henry Egle, Some Pennsylvania Women during the War of the Revolution (1898 reprint 1993), p. 53.

7. Continental Congress, Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, microcard editions, 1975, p. 805. The "One-half of a monthly salary drawn by a soldier" (i.e., a private) amounted to less than two dollars a month. Allen Bowman, The Morale of the American Revolutionary Army (1964), pp. 23–24, explains the difficulty in assessing wages. Initially, a private's monthly salary was $6.66, which was reduced by 25 percent early in the war. Corbin's disability pay was probably about two dollars a month.

8. Egle, Pennsylvania Women, p. 53.

9. William Blumenthal, Women Camp Followers of the American Revolution (1952), p. 70.

10. Elizabeth Evans, Weathering the Storm: Women of the American Revolution (1975), p. 319.

11. The text of her speech is reprinted in ibid., pp. 317–329.

12. Paul Revere to Congressman William Eustis of Massachusetts, l804, quoted in ibid., pp. 329–330.

13. Gerda Lerner, The Female Experience: An American Documentary, American Heritage (l977), pp. 42–44.

14. Deborah Sampson Gannett's letter is quoted in Evans, Weathering the Storm, p. 33.

15. Deborah Sampson Gannett, file # S-32732, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land Warrant Application Files (National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, roll 1045), Records of the Veterans Administration, Record Group 15, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

16. The first pension law granting benefits to widows, passed in l836, required that the marriage of the veteran and the claimant must have taken place before the veteran's military service terminated, i.e., before the close of the war.

17. Some fifty years after the war, Congress investigated Gannett himself while reviewing his claim. His lack of military service and loyalty during the Revolution were questioned. The congressional proclamation states, "While it does not appear that he fought, she would be unlikely to link up with a Tory traitor." Congress noted that because he had sustained her through a life of long sickness and suffering, "he has proved himself worthy of her." Benjamin Gannett died six years later, and by another special act of Congress, Deborah's pension of eighty dollars a year was granted to her children, Earl, Gilbert, and Patience.

18. For further information on women camp followers during the Revolutionary War, see Walter Blumenthal's landmark study, Women Camp Followers of the American Revolution.

19. Henry Belcher, The First American Civil War, zv. 1 (1911), p. 280.

20. John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., Writings of Washington, zv. 9 (1938), p. 17.

21. Hannah Winthrop to Mercy Otis Warren, Nov. 11, l777, in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections 73 (1925), vol. 2, pp. 451–453.

22. De Pauw, "Women in Combat," p. 210.

23. Elizabeth Cometti, "Women of the Revolution," Štvrťročník New England 20 (September 1947): 329.

24. Lemuel Cook, file # S-33258, M804, roll 637, RG 15, NARA.

25. Alexander Miller, file # S-42925, M804, roll 1733, RG 15, NARA.

26. Sarah Osborn Benjamin, file # W4558, M804, roll 624, RG 15, NARA. According to Sarah's testimony, during the Battle of Yorktown, General Washington asked her if she was frightened by the artillery fire, and she replied, "No, the bullets would not cheat the gallows, for it would not do for the men to fight and starve too."

27. References of other family members suggest that Sarah was married to three Revolutionary veterans. Her first husband may have been William Read of Blooming Grove, who died early in the war from battle injury. Her maiden name was Matthews however, she testified that her name was Sarah Read when she met and married Osborn.

28. Sarah Osborn is one of the pensioners featured in John C. Dann, The Revolution Remembered (1980), pp. 240–250. Dann states that she received a double pension based upon the service of both veteran husbands. However, John Benjamin's pension card file indicates that she was pensioned as the former widow of Aaron Osborn of New York. There is no mention of any widow's benefits under Benjamin. Her complete application is filed under Osborn's name. She states in her affidavit that Aaron Osborn later sold the bounty land of 160 acres that he had received to pay some debts. In 1837 she claimed to be eighty-one. If that was her correct age, then she was l08 years old when she died in 1864.

29. Linda Kerber, "History Can Do It No Justice: Women and the Reinterpretation of the American Revolution," in Women in the Age of the American Revolution, vyd. Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert (1989), p. 40.

30. Deborah Sampson Gannett, file # S-32732, M804, roll 1045, RG 15, NARA.


Molly Pitcher

The early history of the legendary American heroine, Molly Pitcher (ca. 1754-1832), including her birthplace and parents, relies upon unconfirmed evidence. The only undisputed fact is her first name, Mary. According to historian John B. Landis, she was born near Trenton, New Jersey, the daughter of a German-born dairyman named John George Ludwig, and was employed as a domestic servant before her first marriage. These claims cannot be verified, as they are based on oral testimony. Landis also claims, based on family testimony, that Mary married John (or John Casper) Hays, a barber from Carlisle, Pennsylvania. However, a 1989 study by D.W. Thompson and Mary Lou Schaumann asserts that post-1783 court records prove her husband's first name was William. All evidence taken into consideration, Mary probably did marry John Hays of Carlisle in 1769, producing one son, John L. Hays (1780-1856). Mary accompanied her husband who had joined the Continental Army, and it was at the June 28, 1778 Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey where she was immortalized as a heroine of the Revolutionary War. According to those who knew her in later years, Mary reminisced that the battle took place on a hot day, and that she carried buckets of water from a nearby creek to the thirsty troops, thus earning her the nickname "Molly Pitcher." Mary reportedly took her husband's place as a canon-loader when he fell wounded. It is a fact that John Hays served as an artillery gunner from December 1775 to December 1776 William Hays apparently held the same position starting in May 1777. Although scholars agree that Mary was present at Monmouth, there are no contemporary accounts of the battle confirming her specific acts of heroism.

After serving in the war, Mary and her severely injured husband returned to Carlisle, where the latter passed away in 1786. Soon thereafter she married John McCauley. Once again a widow around 1808 she earned a meager living mostly as a maid. The Pennsylvania legislature awarded her a yearly annuity of $40 in 1822 for her "services during the Revolutionary War." Her acquaintances described her as a woman of German ancestry, rather coarse yet honest, friendly, and hardworking. When Mary Hays McCauley died in Carlisle in 1832, local newspapers. obituaries gave no mention of her actions at Monmouth, and no grave marker was even erected for her burial. By the time of the centennial of the Revolution, her story was being renewed but at the same time entangled with the definitive accounts of Margaret Corbin's helping fire a cannon at the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776. In 1876 a Carlisle group, with public sentiment mounting at the local 4th of July celebration, officially erected a headstone memorial to Mary as "The Heroine of Monmouth." A life-size statue of "Molly" was erected in Carlisle in 1916, as well as a bas-relief panel on the Monmouth battlefield monument depicting her as a powerful woman stuffing the ramrod into the cannon. An image of the heroic Molly Pitcher loading the cannon was also used as war propaganda by the artist C.W. Miller, in 1944. This was in the form of a poster, trying to draw women into the war effort and inspire patriotism in general. It is quite likely that Mary McCauley was indeed at the Battle of Monmouth, but her actions themselves, just like her early years, cannot be firmly documented. This image, engraved around 1854 by Baker & Andrew, a Boston Engraving firm, depicts "Molly" performing the act of bravery that she is most famous for assisting in the continued operation of the cannon in the midst of battle. This engraving was based on a painting by John Chapin (1823- after 1907), who was known for his depictions of battle scenes. It is hand colored and shows John (or William) Hays lying wounded on the ground near his wife and the other Continental soldiers in charge of the battery. (1)

"Molly Pitcher," American National Biography, zv. 17 (NY: Oxford, 1999) 564-65.


HISTORY LESSON Did Molly Pitcher Stop Here?

EVERYBODY whose name is on a turnpike rest area has a New Jersey connection, even if that's not what made them famous. Here's a history lesson, from north to south:

VINCE LOMBARDI (1913-1970) Coach of the Green Bay Packers for nine years, during which they won five N.F.L. titles and two Superbowls. During his college years, he was one of the ''Seven Blocks of Granite'' on the Fordham University football team.

New Jersey Connection: Taught chemistry, physics, algebra, and Latin and coached football at St. Cecelia's High School, in Englewood, for seven years.

ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1804) An early American statesman, he was an aide to George Washington, served in the second Continental Congress and became the first Secretary of the Treasury.

New Jersey Connection: First came to New Jersey in his early teens, and courted his wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, in Morristown. While serving in the Washington cabinet, helped form the Society for Establishing Useful Manufacturing, which set aside for development the 700 acres at the Great Falls of the Passaic River that grew into the city of Paterson. Killed in a duel with Aaron Burr on Weehawken Heights.

THOMAS EDISON (1847-1931) Inventor whose creations include moving pictures, talking pictures, the dictating machine, the storage battery, phonograph records.

New Jersey Connection: His first laboratory was in Menlo Park, and he built another in West Orange.

GROVER CLEVELAND (1837-1908) The 22d and 24th President of the United States (his terms were not consecutive), he was a New York reform politician who became the first Democratic President after the Civil War.

New Jersey Connection: The only president born in New Jersey (Caldwell), he lived his first four years in the state and retired to Princeton, where he resided until his death.

JOYCE KILMER (1886-1918) Poet, critic and soldier, he was killed in World War I.

New Jersey Connection: Born in New Brunswick, attended Rutgers College. Taught Latin at Morristown High School. Eventually moved to Mahwah.

MOLLY PITCHER (1751-1832) Revolutionary war heroine.

New Jersey Connection: Born in Trenton as Mary Ludwig, she earned the name Molly Pitcher when she found her husband, an artilleryman, overcome by heat at the Battle of Monmouth in 1778. She carried water from a nearby well to him and other exhausted soldiers, who called out, ''Here comes Molly and her pitcher!''

RICHARD STOCKTON (1730-1781) A signer of the Declaration of Independence.

New Jersey Connection: Born into a renowned New Jersey family, he was in the first graduating class at the College of New Jersey. Upon his return from the second Continental Congress, he was taken prisoner by British forces, which broke his health. The family homestead in Princeton became the Governor's residence in 1957.

WOODROW WILSON (1856-1924) The 28th President, he led the nation into World War I and helped negotiate its end in Paris, focusing on creating the League of Nations. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.

New Jersey Connection: Attended Princeton University and served as a professor of political philosophy before becoming its president. He was elected Governor of the state in 1910.

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER (1789-1851)

Novelist whose most famous work is ''The Last of the Mohicans.''

New Jersey Connection: Born in Burlington in a house now used by the Burlington County Historical Society. One of his novels, ''Water-Witch,'' was set in the the Atlantic Highlands.

WALT WHITMAN (1819-1892) An poet whose most famous work is ''Leaves of Grass, he was also a newspaper editor and war correspondent.

New Jersey Connection: After he was paralyzed by illness in 1873, Whitman moved to Camden. His last 19 years were spent there.

CLARA BARTON (1821-1912) Founder of the American Red Cross, she was called ''the angel of the battlefield'' for her aod to the wounded in the Civil War and two European wars.

New Jersey Connection: Went to Bordentown to teach, and established one of the state's first free public schools.

JOHN FENWICK (1618-1683) Born into a noble English family, crossed the Atlantic to become a colonist.

New Jersey Connection: Fenwick purchased ''West Jersey'' from its English owner for 1,000 pounds and 40 beaver skins a year. There he founded Salem and most of modern Cumberland County. He fell from royal favor and lost all his holdings before his death. ANDREA KANNAPELL


Mary Ludwig was born in Trenton, New Jersey, British America. There is some dispute over her birth date, but a marker in the cemetery where she is buried lists her birth date as October 13, 1744. [1] She had a moderately sized family which included her older brother Johann Martin their parents were Maria Margaretha and Johann George Ludwig, who was a butcher. It is likely that she never attended school or learned to read, as education was uncommon among girls at this time. [2]

Her father died in January 1769, and her mother married John Hays the following June. In early 1777, Molly married William Hays, a barber in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Continental Army records show that he was an artilleryman at the Battle of Monmouth in 1778. Dr. William Irvine organized a boycott of British goods as a protest of the Tea Act on July 12, 1774, in a meeting in the Presbyterian Church in Carlisle, and William Hays' name appears on a list of people who were charged with enforcing it. [2]

Valley Forge Edit

In 1777, William Hays enlisted in Proctor's 4th Pennsylvania Artillery, which became Proctor's 4th Artillery of the Continental Army. During the winter of 1777, Molly Hays joined her husband at the Continental Army's winter camp at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. She was one of a group of women, led by Martha Washington, who would wash clothes and blankets, and care for sick and dying soldiers. [ potrebná citácia ]

In early 1778, the Continental Army trained under Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben. Hays trained as an artilleryman, and Mary and other camp followers served as water carriers, carrying water to troops who were drilling on the field. Also, artillerymen needed a supply of water to soak the sponge used to clean sparks and gunpowder out of the barrel after each shot. It was during this time that Mary probably received her nickname, as troops would shout, "Molly! Pitcher!" whenever they needed her to bring fresh water. [ potrebná citácia ]

Battle of Monmouth Edit

At the Battle of Monmouth in June 1778, Mary Hays attended to the soldiers by giving them water. Just before the battle started, she found a spring to serve as her supply, and two places on the battlefield are now marked as the "Molly Pitcher Spring." She spent much of the early day carrying water to soldiers and artillerymen, often under heavy fire from British troops. [ potrebná citácia ]

The weather was very hot, and William Hays collapsed during the battle, either wounded or suffering from heat exhaustion. It has often been reported that he was killed in the battle, but it is known that he survived. [2] As he was carried off the battlefield, Mary took his place at the cannon and continued to "swab and load" the cannon using her husband's ramrod. At one point, a British musket ball or cannonball flew between her legs and tore off the bottom of her skirt. She supposedly said something to the effect of, "Well, that could have been worse," and went back to loading the cannon. [3]

Joseph Plumb Martin recalls an incident in his memoirs, writing that at the Battle of Monmouth, "A woman whose husband belonged to the artillery and who was then attached to a piece in the engagement, attended with her husband at the piece the whole time. While in the act of reaching a cartridge and having one of her feet as far before the other as she could step, a cannon shot from the enemy passed directly between her legs without doing any other damage than carrying away all the lower part of her petticoat. Looking at it with apparent unconcern, she observed that it was lucky it did not pass a little higher, for in that case it might have carried away something else, and continued her occupation." However, there is no mention of the woman Martin describes serving the gun crews with water, nor of her husband becoming a casualty.

Later in the evening, the fighting was stopped due to gathering darkness. Although George Washington and his commanders expected the battle to continue the following day, the British forces retreated during the night and continued on to Sandy Hook, New Jersey.

After the battle, General Washington asked about the woman whom he had seen loading a cannon on the battlefield. In commemoration of her courage, he issued Mary Hays a warrant as a non commissioned officer. Afterward, she was known as "Sergeant Molly," a nickname that she used for the rest of her life. [3]

Later life and death Edit

Following the end of the war, Mary Hays and her husband William returned to Carlisle, Pennsylvania. During this time, Mary gave birth to a son named Johannes (or John). [2] In late 1786, William Hays died.

In 1793, Mary Hays married John McCauley, another Revolutionary War veteran and possibly a friend of William Hays. McCauley was a stone cutter for the local Carlisle prison. However, the marriage was reportedly not a happy one, as McCauley had a violent temper. It was McCauley who was the cause of Mary's financial downfall, causing Mary to sell 200 acres (81 ha) of bounty land left to her by William Hays, for 30 dollars. Sometime between 1807 and 1810, McCauley disappeared, and it is not known what happened to him.

Mary McCauley continued to live in Carlisle. She earned her living as a general servant for hire, cleaning and painting houses, washing windows and caring for children and sick people. "Sergeant Molly," as she was known, was often seen in the streets of Carlisle wearing a striped skirt, wool stockings, and a ruffled cap. [2] She was well-liked by the people of Carlisle, even though she "often cursed like a soldier." [3]

On February 21, 1822, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania awarded Mary McCauley an annual pension of $40 (equivalent to $778 in 2020) for her service. Mary died January 22, 1832, in Carlisle, at the approximate age of 87. [4] She is buried in the Old Graveyard in Carlisle under the name "Molly McCauley". A statue of "Molly Pitcher," standing alongside a cannon, is also in the cemetery. [5] [6]

Molly was a common nickname for women named Mary in the Revolutionary time period. Biographical information about Mary Hays has been gathered by historians, [7] including her cultural heritage, given name, probable year of birth, marriages, progeny, and census and tax records, providing a reasonably reliable account of her life. Historian Emily Teipe notes that the deeds in the story of Molly Pitcher are generally attributed to Mary Ludwig Hays. [8] However, she has also pointed out 'The historical record presents other candidates too numerous to mention' and contends that 'the name Molly Pitcher is a collective generic term', serving as a common label for the 'hundreds, perhaps thousands, of women (who) served not only as ammunition wives, manning and firing the guns, but also in the army and colonial militia'. [8]

Mary Ludwig Hays is commemorated, and named as Molly Pitcher, on the Monmouth Battle Monument in Freehold, New Jersey, and on her grave in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

The Monmouth battlefield also has a stone marking the Molly Pitcher Spring.

A mural depicting Mary in battle was painted in the Freehold post office as a WPA project. It was moved to the Monmouth County Library headquarters when the post office closed. [9]


Molly Pitcher

The more we study the American Revolutionary period and the stories that are told about it, the more we realize that many of those stories are really about 1876, rather than 1776. In other words, a lot of our perceptions about the American Revolution come from stories crafted to celebrate and boost the centennial observations in 1876. One of those stories is about Molly Pitcher, the heroine of the Battle of Monmouth in 1778.

“Molly” was the legendary wife of a continental soldier, and a water carrier who kept the Continental soldiers hydrated during the battle, as well as pouring cool water on cannon barrels so they wouldn’t over-heat. When her husband was wounded, she took his place at the cannon side and fought until the battle was won. One of the most dramatic stories about her was that a musket ball (sometimes it’s a cannon ball) went through her legs and didn’t hit anything except her petticoats. As cool as can be, she supposedly said something like, “well, that could have been worse,” without missing a beat in loading her cannon. She then fought valiantly throughout the rest of the battle, which, although technically a draw, was a moral victory for the Continentals.

The problem, Buzzkillers, is that there is no good evidence for the Molly Pitcher story, and there are no mentions of “Molly Pitcher” until 1851. Her identity wasn’t linked to a real person until 1876, the centennial of the young nation, and exactly the time that the United States needed an American version of Britain’s Queen Boudica or France’s Joan of Arc.

So let’s look at Mary Ludwig Hays from Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the most common person associated with Molly Pitcher. Born in either Trenton or Philadelphia, she moved to Carlisle to work as a servant and married William Hays in 1769. William joined the 7th Pennsylvania Regiment and they participated in the Battle of Monmouth, where the famous episode supposedly took place. By then, Mary had become a camp follower. Almost certainly, she fulfilled the roles of most camp followers — bringing water to soldiers, feeding them, and helping take care of them between battles.

There are all sorts of unverified stories about Mary as Molly. One is that George Washington saw her fighting, and made her an honorary non-commissioned officer. After the war, Mary and William returned to Carlisle. He died in 1786, and she re-married in 1787. She continued working as a servant, was apparently granted a small, annual pension from the Pennsylvania legislature for her war service in 1822. She died in 1832 and was buried in an unmarked grave.

As the centennial of 1776 approached, towns and cities across the original 13 colonies went on a binge to find local worthies from the Revolutionary period to celebrate. Carlisle, Pennsylvania’s “Molly Pitcher” was revived as a hero. This kind of thing happened all over the north-east in the 1870s.

A statue to “Molly Pitcher” was erected in Carlisle in 1916 the US Postal Service put Molly Pitcher on a stamp in 1928 (the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Monmouth) and a Liberty ship named the Molly Pitcher was launched in 1943 and torpedoed the same year.

What so interesting, Buzzkillers, is that the story of Molly Pitcher gives us a great opportunity to talk about an over-looked aspect of history — camp followers during the Revolutionary war.

Camp followers have been around as long as war has been around. Often these were women, usually the wives of soldiers. But there were other types of camp followers including doctors, cooks, people doing uniform and boot repair, and even children used a messengers and for other menial tasks. As you can imagine, there were far more things to do in a modern army (since the invention of gunpowder) than could be done just by the soldiers themselves. And the tradition of having camp followers grew dramatically.

There were thousands of camp followers on both sides during the American Revolutionary. Roughly 4,000 British wives sailed across the ocean with their husbands to join the effort. One thousand German wives accompanied the Hessian soldiers who boosted British ranks, and as many as 5,000 women were camp followers in the Continental Army. Of course, the numbers varied considerably depending on how close the armies were to towns and cities.

What did they do? Almost everything, including, in rare circumstances, fighting in battles. Armies during this period had no real infrastructure, no medical corps, and no systematic way to feed their soldiers. Camp followers did the following (and a lot more): odd jobs, transporting baggage and equipment, tending livestock, sewing and uniform repair, laundry, nursing, and cooking. The standard story of camp followers as prostitutes is usually exaggerated. There were a few, of course, but the vast majority of camp followers were not prostitutes.

Camp followers became increasing important as the Revolutionary War continued because the supply and support networks that the Continental army had built up had gotten over-stretched and worn out. The army, in effect, needed a large, permanent group of camp followers to serve, in effect, as their Quartermaster Corps.

We can’t take our hats off to an actual, historical figure named Molly Pitcher, Buzzkillers. But we can certainly salute all the camp followers who worked tirelessly, in very dangerous conditions, and who have been unjustly overlooked by history.


Molly Pitcher Folklore

Margaret Corbin’s story is often associated with the folklore of “Molly Pitcher.” We know from historical military records of Corbin’s heroic actions, along with other women who fought in the Revolutionary War, such as Deborah Sampson and Mary Ludwig Hays. However, in the years following the war, the persona of patriotic cannoneer “Molly Pitcher” was likely created from various tales of lore about several different women of the time period.

For centuries, many people have revered “Molly Pitcher” as the definitive Revolutionary War heroine, when in fact she is likely a composite character with a fictional moniker, much like “Rosie the Riveter” from WWII. Many historians consider “Molly Pitcher” to be most closely associated with Mary Ludwig Hays who was a camp follower who took up her husband’s cannon when he was injured during the Battle of Monmouth. With this story having many similarities to Margaret Corbin’s story–in addition to her nickname of “Captain Molly”–it is no surprise that she too was often called “Molly Pitcher.” Unfortunately, the moniker has led to much confusion causing the historical facts about these women’s contributions to become comingled and mythologized.

Historians cite that potentially tens of thousands of women were involved in active combat during the Revolutionary War. While we may not ever know all of their real names, we honor the many individual contributions these women made in the fight for our nation’s independence.

Further reading on "Molly Pitcher" folklore:

“Molly Pitcher and Captain Molly” Ray Raphael. Vestník americkej revolúcie (website). May 8, 2013.

“Will the Real Molly Pitcher Please Stand Up?” Emily J. Teipe. Prologue Magazine (National Archives). Summer 1999, Vol. 31, No. 2

“The Battle of Monmouth,” William Stryker. Edited by William Starr Myers. Princeton University Press. 1927


Did Revolutionary War Heroine Molly Pitcher Exist? - HISTÓRIA

Molly Pitcher (1854)

After serving in the war, Mary and her severely injured husband returned to Carlisle, where the latter passed away in 1786. Soon thereafter she married John McCauley. Once again a widow around 1808 she earned a meager living mostly as a maid. The Pennsylvania legislature awarded her a yearly annuity of $40 in 1822 for her "services during the Revolutionary War." Her acquaintances described her as a woman of German ancestry, rather coarse yet honest, friendly, and hardworking. When Mary Hays McCauley died in Carlisle in 1832, local newspapers. obituaries gave no mention of her actions at Monmouth, and no grave marker was even erected for her burial. By the time of the centennial of the Revolution, her story was being renewed but at the same time entangled with the definitive accounts of Margaret Corbin's helping fire a cannon at the Battle of Fort Washington in November 1776. In 1876 a Carlisle group, with public sentiment mounting at the local 4th of July celebration, officially erected a headstone memorial to Mary as "The Heroine of Monmouth." A life-size statue of "Molly" was erected in Carlisle in 1916, as well as a bas-relief panel on the Monmouth battlefield monument depicting her as a powerful woman stuffing the ramrod into the cannon. An image of the heroic Molly Pitcher loading the cannon was also used as war propaganda by the artist C.W. Miller, in 1944. This was in the form of a poster, trying to draw women into the war effort and inspire patriotism in general. It is quite likely that Mary McCauley was indeed at the Battle of Monmouth, but her actions themselves, just like her early years, cannot be firmly documented. This image, engraved around 1854 by Baker & Andrew, a Boston Engraving firm, depicts "Molly" performing the act of bravery that she is most famous for assisting in the continued operation of the cannon in the midst of battle. This engraving was based on a painting by John Chapin (1823- after 1907), who was known for his depictions of battle scenes. It is hand colored and shows John (or William) Hays lying wounded on the ground near his wife and the other Continental soldiers in charge of the battery. (1)

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Molly Pitcher Fought at Battle of Brandywine in Male Disguise, September 11, 1777, says New Mystery Novel/ Research Guide by Linda Grant DePauw

Past News Releases

Pasadena, MD (PRWEB) September 4, 2007

September 11 marks the 130th anniversary of the Battle of Brandywine, the largest battle of the Revolutionary War when General George Washington had more troops under his command than he ever would have again. Among them may have been Molly Pitcher, America's most famous military woman, says Professor Linda Grant De Pauw, author of In Search of Molly Pitcher (http://www.lulu.com/content/948354), a mystery story combined with an historical research guide for middle schoolers, which will be published in October.

"Mary Hays McCauley, who is usually considered the real Molly Pitcher, is identified with the Battle of Monmouth, fought in June 1778," says De Pauw. "But there is no contemporary evidence to confirm that. Her obituary notices do not mention any military service beyond support for her soldier husband, and the pension she received from the Pennsylvania legislature mentions 'services rendered during the Revolution,' but doesn't specify what those were. There is, however, a newspaper article published when the pension was awarded saying 'She was called Sgt. McCauly and was wounded at some battle, supposed to be the Brandywine, where her sex was discovered.' That means she was disguised as a man."

This newspaper story is one of the documents examined by the heroine of De Pauw's new book, In Search of Molly Pitcher. When Peggy McAllister learns about an eighth grade social studies award, she is determined to win it. With the help of her Greatgramps, a retired private investigator, his lady friend Mrs. Spinner, historian and author of historical romances, and Ms. Guelphstein, a dedicated reference librarian, Peggy sorts through a maze of confusing and contradictory evidence to uncover the true story of Molly Pitcher.

Advance readers of In Search of Molly Pitcher are enthusiastic. Eric G. Grundset, Library Director of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution says, "Historical method and inquiry, verification of facts, and sifting of information offer the reader useful instruction in the guise of a clever detective story." Barbara J. Crudale, President, Rhode Island School Counselor Association says, "Should be on all middle school required reading lists. Students will identify with the main character. Enjoyable reading for adults too!" Beth Gilgun, historian in residence, Deerfield Teachers' Center says "Clearly points out the difference between primary and secondary sources, clearly walks a student through the process of researching a paper, and does it all in a very entertaining manner. I enjoyed it so much that I read it straight through." And Lucie McCormick, age 12, from Mohawk Middle School in Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts says, "This book was really interesting, and it made me more interested in history. Even for people who don't like learning, I think this would be a good book."

O AUTOROVI
Linda Grant De Pauw is Professor Emeritus of History at the George Washington University and president of The Minerva Center, a non-profit educational foundation supporting the study of women and war. In addition to books for adult audiences including Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present, De Pauw is the author of two prize-winning books for young adults: Founding Mothers and Seafaring Women.


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