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Bitka pri Eurymedone, júl alebo august 190 pred Kr.

Bitka pri Eurymedone, júl alebo august 190 pred Kr.


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Bitka pri Eurymedone, júl alebo august 190 pred Kr.

Bitka pri Eurymedone (alebo Side) v roku 190 pred Kr. bola jednou z dvoch námorných bitiek, ktoré znamenali zlom v tom roku bojov vo vojne medzi Rímom a Antiochom III. Potom, čo v predchádzajúcom roku utrpel námornú porážku u Corycusa, Antiochus posilnil svoju flotilu v západnej Malej Ázii a nariadil veľkému púnskemu generálovi Hannibalovi, aby postavil druhú flotilu vo Fenícii.

Antiochus stál pred koalíciou Rím, Rhodos a Pergamum. Jeho najlepšou nádejou na námorné víťazstvo bolo rozdeliť spojenecké loďstvo a podrobne ho poraziť. Iba prvá časť tohto plánu by sa skončila úspechom. Spojenci si boli vedomí nebezpečenstva od Hannibala, ale nemohli si dovoliť sústrediť všetky svoje lode v ohrozenej oblasti, pretože hlavná rímska armáda pod vedením bratov Scipiovcov kráčala k Hellespontu, kde by potrebovala námornú podporu. Eumenes z Pergamu a jeho flotila preto museli byť vyslaní do severného Egejského mora, aby podporovali armádu. Keď sa k rímskej a rhodianskej flotile dostala správa, že Hannibal je na ceste, rhodiansku flotilu pod Eudamasom poslali na východ, aby sa s novou hrozbou vysporiadala.

Našťastie pre neho bola Hannibalova flotila navrhnutá tak, aby porazila Rimanov, nie Rodanov. Rimania sa spoliehali na kvalitu svojej pechoty, aby vyhrali svoje námorné bitky, zápasili a nalodili sa na nepriateľské lode. Na zvládnutie tejto taktiky postavil Hannibal flotilu veľkých vojnových lodí - jeho 47 palubných lodí zahŕňalo tri hepteres, štyri hexery, tridsať penteres a tetreres a desať trieres. Naproti tomu rhodianska flotila obsahovala 32 tetreres a 4 trieres a nemali v úmysle bojovať proti palubným akciám.

Výsledná bitka namiesto toho závisela od schopností posádok a kapitánov lode a tu mali výhodu Rodíni. Aj keď sa Hannibalovi na sýrskej ľavici v raných bojoch dobre darilo, Apollonius na sýrskej pravici mal čoskoro problémy a musel zavolať pomoc. Keď lode reagovali na túto výzvu, Hannibal tiež našiel svoje krídlo v problémoch a čoskoro boli obe krídla sýrskej flotily nútené utiecť.

Presný počet stratených sýrskych lodí nie je jasný. Livy uvádza, že dvadsať bolo nepoškodených, a spomína dvoch, ktorí boli stratení. Minimálne ďalších dvadsaťpäť veľa bolo poškodených a Hannibalova flotila bola vyradená z bojov. Eudamas a časť rhodianskej flotily sa mohli slobodne včas pripojiť k hlavnej rímskej flotile a zúčastniť sa rozhodujúcej námornej bitky vojny pri Myonnese.


Ôsme bojové straty leteckých síl

8. AF utrpela počas druhej svetovej vojny veľa strát. Prvou oficiálnou misiou, ktorú 8. príslušník letectva uskutočnil, boli štyri lietadlá A-20 Havoc (požičané od Britov) na letisko v Holandsku (v koordinácii s inými britskými náletmi) 4. júla 1942. (Niektoré zdroje uvádzajú 6 lietadiel vrátane oficiálne záznamy leteckých síl, ale vojnový časopis Impact uvádza 4.) Tri zo štyroch lietadiel boli zostrelené. Dva flakom a jeden FW-190 cez kanál. Išli nízko a bez sprievodu, aby prekvapili Nemcov v spojení s britskými nájazdmi. Nejako odpracované. Jeden bol zostrelený nad letiskom, jeden zostrelený ako prichádzajúci na letisko, aby bol bombardovaný a ako už bolo spomenuté, tretí bol zostrelený, keď sa pokúšal dostať späť do Anglicka. Bola to predzvesť vecí, ktoré prídu. V článku časopisu Impact je obrázok náletu vedúceho lietadla nad nemecké pole.

Tu je tabuľka XLS, ktorá zobrazuje všetky 8. misie a ciele vzdušných síl so stratami podľa dátumu počas celej vojny. 8. letela na misiu č. 1 17. augusta 1942, keď 12 lietadiel B-17 zaútočilo na Marshalling yardy Rouen, a poslednú misiu na 8. mája 1945 na misiu č. 986, keď 12 lietadiel B-17 odhodilo v Nemecku letáky.

Ako zranený štáb Sgt. Johnovi Hillovi pomohli z jeho bombardéra B-17 po nálete 13. januára 1943 prišiel veliteľ 305. bombardovacej skupiny plukovník Curtis LeMay a povedal:

„Neboj sa, na tej guľke nebolo tvoje meno.“

„Nie,“ odpovedal Hill, „ale bolo na ňom„ Komu sa to môže týkať “.“

305. prezývka BG (H) bola „Koktejlové deti“.

Americké letecké múzeum v Duxforde, Spojené kráľovstvo Americké letecké múzeum v Duxforde uchováva lietadlá, ktoré leteli USA od prvej svetovej vojny po moderné lietadlá. Vzali všetky lietadlá namaľované v amerických značkách zo všetkých ostatných vešiakov a presunuli ich do tohto v roku 1998. Projektant však uprednostnil funkciu nad štýlom a preto je tam lietadlo EXTRÉMNE ťažké vidieť. Aj tie visiace zo stropu sú ťažko viditeľné. Veľmi preplnené. Tento pohľad je z letovej čiary, hlavný vchod je skutočne na druhej strane prednej strany skleneného vešiaka.

Sklenená stena v Americkom leteckom múzeu, Duxford, Anglicko Keď kráčate k Americkému leteckému múzeu v Duxforde, majú sklenené platne vyryté so symbolmi lietadla typu, ktorým táto jednotka lietala počas druhej svetovej vojny. Každé lietadlo vyryté na skle predstavuje 10 lietadiel stratených skupinou bojovníkov alebo bombardérov. Sklenené tabule sú vysoké 10 stôp a široké 6 stôp a stena je dlhá asi 150 stôp.

Počet bombardérov stratených každou skupinou ťažkých bombardérov v 8. letectve počas 2. svetovej vojny

Tieto štatistiky pochádzajú z 398. bulletinu BG. Tieto čísla sa zhodujú s tým, čo som videl uvedené v jednotlivých histórii jednotiek a v referenčných knihách. Tiež sa zhoduje so stenou pred Americkým leteckým múzeom predtým, ako názvy jednotiek odniesol dážď.
Bombová skupinaStanicaBombardér
Napíšte
Misie
Letel
Straty
34MendelshamB-1717034
44ShipdhamB-24343153
91BassingbournB-17340197
92PodingtonB-17308154
93HardwickB-24396100
94Bury St. EdmondsB-17324153
95HorhamB-17320157
96Snetterton HeathB-17321189
100Thorpe AbbotsB-17306177
303MoleworthB-17364165
305ChelvestonB-17337154
306ThurieighB-17342171
351PolebrookB-17311124
379KimboltonB-17330141
381RidgewellB-17296131
384Grafton UnderwoodB-17314159
385Veľký AshfieldB-17296129
388KnettishallB-17306142
389HethelB-24321116
390FramlinghamB-17300144
392WendlingB-24285127
398NuthampsteadB-1719558
401DeenthropeB-1725695
445TibenhamB-2428295
446BungayB-2427358
447RattlesdenB-1725797
448VriecB-24262101
452Deopham GreenB-17250110
453Starý BuckenhamB-2425958
457GlattonB-1723783
458Horsham St. FaithB-2424047
466AttlebridgeB-2423247
467RackheathB-2421229
486SudburyB-1718833
487LavenhamB-1718548
489HalesworthB-2410629
490OkoB-1715840
491MetfieldB-2418747
492North PickenhamB-246412
493DeebachB-1715841
Celkom 10631 4145

9 Ikonické lietadlo Z bitky o Britániu

Bitka o Britániu, ktorá zúrila v období od júla do októbra 1940, postavila kráľovské vojenské letectvo proti nemeckej Luftwaffe v súboji o vzdušnú prevahu nad južným Anglickom. Piloti na oboch stranách mali pod kontrolou niektoré z najznámejších lietadiel v histórii letectva vrátane Spitfire, Hurricane a Messerschmitt Bf 109.

Tu je 9 ikonických lietadiel bitky o Britániu:

Spitfire bol ikonickým lietadlom bitky o Britániu a vo vzduchu sa stal symbolom britského vzdoru. Navrhol Reginald Mitchell a mal pokročilý celokovový drak, vďaka ktorému bol ľahký a pevný. Stavba trvala dlhšie ako hurikán a bola menej pevná, ale bola rýchlejšia a mala rýchlu odozvu, ktorá zapôsobila na všetkých, ktorí na nej lietali. Podstatné je, že to bol zápas pre Messerschmitt Bf 109 Luftwaffe a v nižších nadmorských výškach bol nad ním. Spitfire vstúpil do služby s letkou č. 19 v Duxforde v auguste 1938. Výroba bola spočiatku pomalá, ale do septembra 1940 bola v prevádzke s 18 letkami RAF. Spitfiry zostrelili celkom 529 nepriateľských lietadiel, pričom stratili 230 vlastných.

Hurikán bol najpočetnejším z lietadiel veliteľstva stíhacích lietadiel RAF počas bitky o Britániu a do septembra 1940 vybavil 33 letiek. Jeho tradičný dizajn - konštrukcia z dreva a kovu pokrytá tkaninou - bol odvodený od predchádzajúcich dvojplošníkov a bol v podstate zastaraný napriek neskoršie vylepšenia. Išlo však o stabilné a robustné lietadlo, ktoré bolo možné udržiavať a opravovať jednoduchšie ako Spitfire. Jeho obmedzenia znamenali, že pokiaľ je to možné, letky Hurricane boli namierené proti nepriateľským bombardérom, zatiaľ čo vynikajúce Spitfiry sa zaoberali sprievodom stíhačiek. Napriek svojim nedostatkom predstavoval hurikán počas bitky o Britániu 656 nemeckých lietadiel - viac ako Spitfire. Od 30. júla do 16. septembra bolo zničených 404 hurikánov.

Navštívte IWM Duxford

Pripojte sa k IWM Duxford pri príležitosti 80. výročia bitky o Britániu a prerozprávajte mimoriadny príbeh leteckej kampane druhej svetovej vojny v lete 1940.

Defiant bol dvojmiestny bojovník so štvorplášťovou vežou poháňanou motorom. Nemala žiadnu výzbroj na streľbu dopredu, čo znamenalo, že nemohla zostreľovať nepriateľské lietadlá zozadu. Bol určený predovšetkým ako stíhací bombardér, ale koncepcia stíhacej veže bola zastaraná a kvôli extra hmotnosti lietadlo v boji spomaľovalo. V prvých bitkách o Dunkerque sa Defiants ukázal byť veľmi zraniteľný voči konvenčným nepriateľským bojovníkom. Bojové velenie RAF urýchlene vyslalo svoje dve letky Defiant - č. 141 a 264 - do akcie v júli a auguste, čo malo za následok dva samostatné masakre Luftwaffe. V dôsledku toho lietadlo nehralo žiadnu ďalšiu úlohu ako denný bojovník v bitke.

Bf 109 bol pravdepodobne najlepším stíhačom na svete v roku 1940. Bol rýchlejší ako Spitfire vo vysokej nadmorskej výške, dokázal sa potápať rýchlejšie a niesol účinnejšiu výzbroj dvoch kanónov a dvoch guľometov. Väčšina pilotov Bf 109 mala prinajmenšom spočiatku viac bojových skúseností ako ich náprotivky RAF, čo tiež znamenalo veľkú výhodu. Messerschmitt však nemal dostrel na let za Londýnom a niesol delovú muníciu v hodnote iba sedem sekúnd, čo obmedzovalo jeho operačnú využiteľnosť. Luftwaffe začala bitku s asi 1 100 Bf 109 a 906 pilotmi. Zostrelených bolo asi 650 lietadiel.

Dvojmiestny Bf 110 bol koncipovaný ako diaľkový ťažký sprievodný bojovník resp Zerstörer (ničiteľ). Bol rýchly a dobre vyzbrojený, ale chýbala mu manévrovateľnosť. Bol výrazne horší ako svižnejšie stíhače RAF a stal sa zodpovedným za pokus o stráženie bombardovacích formácií. Nemci boli nútení použiť Bf 109 na doprovod Bf 110. Lietadlo však bolo efektívnejšie, keď sa používalo na útoky na nízke úrovne proti továrňam a letiskám RAF. Nemci nevideli potenciál Bf 110 v tejto úlohe stíhacieho bombardéra a na takúto prácu bola vycvičená iba jedna jednotka Luftwaffe.

He 111 bol najdôležitejším z prvých bombardérov Luftwaffe, ale bol zastaraný v roku 1940. Jeho bombové zaťaženie 2 000 kg nepostačovalo na strategické bombardovanie a bolo pomalé a zle vyzbrojené. Opatrenia na zvýšenie jeho obrannej výzbroje sa ukázali ako neúčinné a Heinkel, rovnako ako ostatné typy nemeckých bombardérov, bol akútne zraniteľný voči odporu bojovníkov RAF. V jeho prospech bola štrukturálna pevnosť, ktorá dokázala absorbovať trest - mnohým lietadlám sa podarilo vrátiť na základňu so stovkami dier po guľkách v trupe a lietajúcich plochách.

Dornier Do 17 - prezývaný „lietajúca ceruzka“ - vychádzal z predvojnového návrhu vysokorýchlostného poštového lietadla, ktoré nacistické ministerstvo letectva prerobilo na bombardér. Do 17Z sa stal hlavnou produkčnou verziou, ktorá vybavila tri krídla bombardéra Luftwaffe na vrchole bitky o Britániu. Lietadlo už bolo prakticky zastarané. V malej výške bol svižný, ale dokázal niesť iba 1 000 kg bômb a mal obmedzený dolet. Rovnako ako Heinkel He 111 bola jeho obranná výzbroj slabá a straty boli vážne. Pri slávnej akcii 18. augusta bolo pri útokoch na RAF Kenley na juhu Londýna zostrelených osem Dornierov a deväť poškodených. Výroba Dornier Do 17 bola ukončená v lete 1940.

Junkers Ju 88 bol najmodernejší z nemeckých bombardérov v roku 1940. Bol navrhnutý ako rýchly stredný bombardér a prvýkrát vzlietol v decembri 1936. Sľubný nový dizajn však ohrozil Ernst Udet, zástupca hlavného veliteľa Luftwaffe. Hermann Göring. Udet požadoval, aby bol Ju 88 schopný potápať sa s bombardovaním. Potrebné štrukturálne zmeny zvýšili hmotnosť lietadla, čo znížilo jeho výkon a tiež oddialilo výrobu. Ukázalo sa, že je rovnako zraniteľný voči stíhačkám RAF ako ostatné bombardéry Luftwaffe počas bitky o Britániu, ale neskôr dospel k jednému z najvšestrannejších a najdôležitejších lietadiel Luftwaffe.

Neslávne známa „Stuka“ sa preslávila počas bleskových vojnových triumfov v rokoch 1939-1940. Jeho názov je odvodený od skratky nemeckého výrazu pre skokový bombardér - Sturzkampffleugzeug. Ju 87 bola zvolenou zbraňou vrchného velenia Luftwaffe a bola navrhnutá tak, aby poskytovala presné bombardovacie útoky pri takmer vertikálnom ponore. Bolo to účinné počas kampaní v Poľsku a Francúzsku, keď nemecké sily pôsobili prevažne v prostredí vzdušnej prevahy. Ale na oblohe nad Britániou bol príbeh veľmi odlišný. Po niekoľkých počiatočných úspechoch silne sprevádzaných formácií boli Stukas zabití bojovníkmi RAF. V ich najhorší deň, 18. augusta, bolo 12 Ju 87 zostrelených a mnoho ďalších bolo poškodených alebo odpísaných pri nehodách pri ich návrate. Takéto straty znamenali, že lietadlo bolo postupne stiahnuté z bitky.


Bitka pri Eurymedone, júl alebo august 190 pred Kr. - História

Mapy nakreslil
Major C.C.J. Bond

Vydal úrad ministra národnej obrany

Roger Duhamel, F.R.S.C., Ottawa, 1966
Kráľovná tlačiareň a ovládač papiernictva
& copyCrown Autorské práva vyhradené

POZNÁMKA

Pri písaní tohto zväzku má autor plný prístup k príslušným oficiálnym dokumentom, ktoré vlastní ministerstvo národnej obrany, ale vyvodené závery a vyjadrené názory sú názormi samotného autora a ministerstvo v žiadnom prípade nezodpovedá za jeho čítanie alebo prezentácia skutočností, ako je uvedené.


Vo Falaise Gap, august 1944
Z akvarelu majora W.A. Ogilvieho, M.B.E.
Muži 4. kanadskej pešej brigády postupujúci vpred troskami nemeckých armád.
V strede je 7,62 cm. samohybná pištoľ. Maľované na mieste pri Ecorches.

Juliánsky kalendár nadobúda účinnosť prvýkrát na Nový rok

V roku 45 p. N. L. Sa Nový rok oslavuje 1. januára po prvýkrát v histórii, keď nadobúda účinnosť juliánsky kalendár.

Julius Caesar sa krátko po tom, ako sa stal rímskym diktátorom, rozhodol, že tradičný rímsky kalendár nevyhnutne potrebuje reformu. Rímsky kalendár, zavedený okolo siedmeho storočia pred n. L., Sa pokúšal nasledovať lunárny cyklus, ale často vypadával z fázy s ročnými obdobiami a musel byť opravený. Okrem toho pontifikáty, rímsky orgán poverený dohľadom nad kalendárom, často zneužívali svoju právomoc tým, že pridali dni na predĺženie politických podmienok alebo zasahovanie do volieb.

Pri navrhovaní svojho nového kalendára Caesar požiadal o pomoc Sosigenes, alexandrijského astronóma, ktorý mu odporučil, aby sa úplne zbavil lunárneho cyklu a nasledoval slnečný rok, rovnako ako Egypťania. Rok bol vypočítaný na 365 a 1/4 dňa a Caesar k roku 46 pred n. L. Pridal 67 dní, čo znamenalo 45 pred n. L. začínajú 1. januára, a nie v marci. Tiež nariadil, aby sa k februáru pridávali každé štyri roky denne, čím sa teoreticky zabráni tomu, aby jeho kalendár vypadol z miery. Krátko po zavraždení Caesara v roku 44 pred n. L. Mark Anthony na počesť jeho mena zmenil názov mesiaca Quintilis na Július (júl). Neskôr bol mesiac Sextilis po jeho nástupcovi premenovaný na Augustus (august).

Oslavy nového roka v januári vypadli z praxe počas stredoveku a dokonca ani tí, ktorí sa striktne držali juliánskeho kalendára, nedodržiavali nový rok presne 1. januára. Dôvodom posledného menovaného bolo, že Caesar a Sosigenes neuspeli. vypočítať správnu hodnotu pre slnečný rok ako 365,242199 dní, nie 365,25 dní. K chybe 11 minút za rok teda pribudlo sedem dní do roku 1000 a 10 dní do polovice 15. storočia.

Cirkev si tento problém uvedomila a v 70. rokoch 15. storočia pápež Gregor XIII. Poveril jezuitského astronóma Christophera Clavia, aby prišiel s novým kalendárom. V roku 1582 bol zavedený gregoriánsky kalendár, v ktorom sa vynechal 10 dní v tomto roku a ustanovilo sa nové pravidlo, že prestupným rokom by mal byť iba jeden zo štyroch storočných rokov. Odvtedy sa ľudia na celom svete hromadne schádzajú 1. januára, aby oslávili presný príchod nového roka.


Vodopády Sovietskeho zväzu

25. december 1991: Po neúspešnom prevrate komunistickej strany sa Sovietsky zväz rozpadá a Gorbačov rezignuje. S Ukrajinou a Bieloruskom tvorí Rusko Spoločenstvo nezávislých štátov, ku ktorému sa nakoniec pripojí väčšina bývalých sovietskych republík. Jeľcin začína zrušiť cenové kontroly a reformy zavedené komunistami a v roku 1993 podpisuje zmluvu START II, ​​v ktorej sa zaväzuje obmedzovať jadrové zbrane. V roku 1996 vyhral opätovné voľby, ale v roku 1999 odstúpil a za úradujúceho prezidenta menoval bývalého agenta KGB Vladimíra Putina, svojho premiéra.

December 1994: Ruské jednotky vstupujú do odtrhnutej Čečenskej republiky, aby zastavili hnutie za nezávislosť. Odhaduje sa, že počas 20-mesačnej vojny, ktorá sa končí kompromisnou dohodou, zahynulo až 100 000 ľudí. Čečenskí povstalci pokračujú v kampani za nezávislosť, niekedy aj prostredníctvom teroristických činov v Rusku.

26. marca 2000: Vladimir Putin je zvolený za prezidenta a v roku 2004 bol opäť zvolený do funkcie. Z dôvodu časových obmedzení opúšťa svoj úrad v roku 2008, keď je zvolený jeho chránenec Dmitrij Medvedev, a slúži ako jeho predseda vlády. V roku 2012 bol Putin znovu zvolený za prezidenta.

23. október 2002: Asi 50 čečenských povstalcov zaútočí na moskovské divadlo a počas vypredaného predstavenia populárneho muzikálu si vezme rukojemníkov až 700 ľudí. Po 57-hodinovej prestávke je väčšina povstalcov a okolo 120 rukojemníkov zabitá, keď ruské budovy vtrhnú do budovy.


Bitka pri Khe Sanh

K útoku konečne došlo 21. januára 1968, keď sily PAVN zahájili masívne delostrelecké bombardovanie Khe Sanh, pričom zasiahli hlavný sklad munície na základni a zničili 90 percent delostreleckých a mínometných nábojov.

Prezident Lyndon B. Johnson súhlasil s argumentom Westmorelandu, že základňa by mala byť držaná za každú cenu, a americké a juhovietnamské sily zahájili operáciu Niagara, hlavné delostrelecké bombardovanie podozrivých polôh severovietnamského delostrelectva v kopcoch obklopujúcich Khe Sanh.

Keďže Johnson, Westmoreland a ďalší predstavitelia považovali Khe Sanh za primárny cieľ severovietnamcov, do značnej miery ignorovali známky nárastu komunizmu vo viac mestských oblastiach južného Vietnamu.


Bitka pri Eurymedone, júl alebo august 190 pred Kr. - História

Plukovné histórie Únie

Massachusetts

10. pluk pechoty

Organizovaná vo Springfielde, 21. júna 1861. Presťahovaná do Washingtonu, DC, 25.-28. júla. Pripojený k Couchovej brigáde, divízii Potomacu, k októbru 1861. Couchova brigáda, Buellova (Keyesova) divízia, armáda Potomacu, k marcu 1862. 1. brigáda, 1. divízia, 4. armádny zbor, armáda Potomacu, do septembra 1862. 1. brigáda, 3. divízia, 6. armádny zbor, do októbra 1862. 2. brigáda, 3. divízia, 6. armádny zbor, do januára 1864. 4. brigáda, 2. divízia, 6. armádny zbor, do júla 1864.

SLUŽBA.-Povinnosť v Kalorama Heights a Camp Brightwood, Defence of Washington, DC, do marca 1862. Pochod na Prospect Hill, Va., 11.-15. marca. Nalodený v Alexandrii na polostrov, Virgínia, 25. marca. Obliehanie Yorktownu 5. apríla-4. mája Bitka o Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, 31. mája-1. júna. Sedem dní pred Richmondom, 25. júna-1. júla. Oak Grove, blízko Seven Pines, 25. júna. White Oak Swamp 30. júna, Malvern Hill 1. júla. Na Harrisonovom pristátí do 16. augusta. Prieskum na ostrove Turecko 5.-6. augusta a na pristátie Haxalla 8.-11. augusta. Presun do Alexandrie 16. augusta-1. septembra, odtiaľ pochod do Marylandu 3.-18. septembra. Bitka o Antietam 18. septembra V Downsville 18. septembra-20. októbra Presun do Staffordu C. H. 20. októbra-18. novembra a do Belle Plains 5. decembra Bitka o Fredericksburg, Va., 12.-15. decembra. „Bahenný marec“ 20.-24. januára 1863. Kampaň Chancellorsville 27. apríla-6. mája Operácie na Franklinovom priecestí 29. apríla-2. mája Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, 3. mája Salem Heights 3. až 4. mája. Banksov Ford 4. mája Franklin's Crossing 6.-7. júna. Bitka pri Gettysburgu, Pa., 2.-4. júla. Kampaň Bristoe 9.-22. októbra. Stanica Rappahannock 7. novembra Kampaň na beh mínami 26. november-december 2. Na stanici Brandy do 1. mája 1864. Prieskum do Madison C. H. 27. februára-marec 2. Kampaň Rapidan máj-jún. Bitky o divočinu 5.-7. mája. Spottsylvania 8.-12. mája. Spottsylvania C. H. 12.-21. mája. Útok na výbežok v Spottsylvánii C. H. 12. máj. Severná rieka Anna 23.-26. mája. Línia Pamunkey 26.-28. júna. Totopotomoy 28.-31. mája. Cold Harbor 1.-12. júna. Pred Petrohradom 17.-19. júna. Objednané domov na zhromaždenie von 19. júna. Zhromaždené 6. júla 1864.

Pluk stratil počas služby 10 dôstojníkov a 124 poddôstojníkov zabitých a smrteľne zranených a 1 dôstojníka a 55 zaradených mužov podľa chorôb. Spolu 190.

Pechota 11. pluku

Organizovaný v Readville a zhromaždený 13. júna 1861. Odišiel zo štátu Washington, DC, 24. júna. Pripojený k Franklinovej brigáde, Heintzelmanovej divízii, McDowellovej armáde severovýchodnej Virgínie, do augusta 1861. Hookerova brigáda, divízia Potomac, do októbra , 1861. 1. brigáda, Hookerova divízia, armáda Potomacu, do marca 1862. 1. brigáda, 2. divízia, 3. armádny zbor, armáda Potomacu, do marca 1864. 2. brigáda, 4. divízia, 2. armádny zbor, armáda Potomacu, do mája 1864. 4. brigáda, 3. divízia, 2. armádny zbor, do júna 1864. 3. brigáda, 3. divízia, 2. armádny zbor, do júna 1865.

SERVICE.-Záloha na Manassas, Va., 16.-21. júla 1861. Bitka o Bull Run, 21. júla. Presunutý do Bladensburgu 10. augusta, odtiaľ na Budd's Ferry 27. októbra. Povinnosť v tejto blízkosti do apríla 1862. Objednávka na pevnosť Monroe, Va., 7. apríla Siege of Yorktown, Va., 16. apríla-4. mája Aféra v Yorktowne 26. apríla (Cos. & QuotA & & & quotG & quot). Bitka o Williamsburg 5. mája Bitka o Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, 31. mája-1. júna Sedem dní pred Richmondom, 25. júna-1. júla Oak Grove, neďaleko Fair Oaks, 25. júna Savage Station 29. júna White Oak Swamp a Glendale 30. júna Malvern Hill 1. júla a 5. augusta V Harrisonovom pristátí do 15. augusta Presun do pevnosti Monroe, odtiaľ do Centerville 15.-26. augusta. Stanica Bristoe 26.-27. augusta. Kettle Run 27. augusta Catlett's Station 28. augusta Groveton 29. augusta Bull Run 30. augusta Chantilly 1. septembra Kemp pri Fort Lyone do 13. septembra a pri seminári Fairfax do 20. októbra Na Munsonovom kopci do novembra. Na stanici Fairfax 2.-25. novembra. Operácie na Orange & amp Alexandria R. R. 10.-12. novembra. Kampaň Rappahannock, december 1862 až jún 1863. Bitka pri Fredericksburgu, Va., 12.-15. december. „Bahenný marec“ 20.-24. januára 1863. Operácie pri moste Rappahannock a kostole v Grove 5.-7. februára. Vo Falmouthe do 27. apríla Kampaň Chancellorsville 27. apríla-6. mája Bitka pri Chancellorsville 1.-5. mája. Kampaň v Gettysburgu (Pa.) 11. júna-24. júla Bitka pri Gettysburgu 1.-4. júla. Wapping Heights 23. júla Presťahovaný do New Yorku 30. júla-1. augusta a tam bude pôsobiť do októbra. pripojiť sa k zboru v Union Mills 17. októbra. Postup na Rappahannock 7.-8. novembra. Kelly's Ford 7. november Kampaň na spustenie bane 26. november-2. december Payneova farma 27. november Povinnosť pri stanici Brandy do mája 1864. Demonštrácia na Rapidane 6.-7. februára. Kampaň Rapidan máj-jún. Bitky o divočinu 5.-7. mája. Spottsylvania 8.-12. mája, Spottsylvania C. H. 12.-21. mája. Útok na výbežok v Spottsylvánii G. H. 12. máj Harris Farm, Fredericksburg Road, 19. mája North Anna River 23.-26. mája. Línia Pamunkey 26.-28. mája. Totopotomoy 28.-31. mája. Cold Harbor 1.-12. júna. (Starí členovia odišli z frontu 12. júna, zhromaždili sa 24. júna 1864.) Veteráni a regrúti sa spojili do práporu 5 roty 12. júna pred Petrohradom 16.-18. júna. Obliehanie Petrohradu 16. júna 1864 do 2. apríla 1865. Jeruzalemská planková cesta 22.-23. júna 1864. Demonštrácia na severnej strane Jakuba 27.-29. júla. Hlboké dno 27.-28. júla. Mine Explosion, Petrohrad, 30. júla (rezerva). Demonštrácia na severnej strane rieky James v dňoch 13.-20. augusta. Strawberry Plains 14.-18. augusta. Peeble's Farm, Poplar Grove Church, 29. september-2. október Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, 27.-28. októbra. Pred Fort Morton 5. novembra Expedícia na železnicu Weldon 7.-11. decembra. Watkinov dom 25. marca 1865. Appomattox C. H. 28. marca-9. apríla Vranov dom 31. marca 31. Pád Petrohradu 2. apríla Námornícky potok 6. apríla Vysoký most a Farmville 7. apríla Appomattox C. H. 9. apríla Vzdanie sa Leeho a jeho armády. Pochod do Burkesville 11.-13. apríla a služba tam do 2. mája. Pochod do Washingtonu, DC, 2.-15. mája. Veľká recenzia, 23. máj, zhromaždené 14. júna 1865.

Pluk stratil počas služby 11 dôstojníkov a 153 zaradených mužov zabitých a smrteľne zranených a 2 dôstojníkov a 95 zaradených mužov podľa chorôb. Spolu 261.

12. pluk pechoty

Organizovaný vo Fort Warren a zhromaždený 26. júna 1861. Presťahovaný do Sandy Hook, MD, 23.-27. júla. Pripojený k brigáde Georga H. Thomasa, oddiel Shenandoah, k októbru 1861. Abercrombieho $ brigáda, Banksova divízia, armáda Potomacu, k marcu 1862. 2. brigáda, Williamsova 1. divízia, 5. banka Armádneho zboru a oddelenia Shenandoah, do mája 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, oddelenie Rappahannock, do júna 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, 3. armádny zbor, Virginská armáda, do septembra 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, 1. armádny zbor, Potomacská armáda, do novembra 1862. 2. brigáda, 2. divízia, 1. armádny zbor, do marca 1864. 2. brigáda, 2. divízia, 5. armádny zbor, do mája 1864. 2. brigáda, 3. divízia, 5. armádny zbor, do júla 1864.

SLUŽBA-Operácie na Hornom Potomacu, august 1861 až február 1862. Operácie oproti Edwardovmu trajektu 21.-24. októbra 1861. Operácie v údolí Shenandoah 24. marca-27. apríla Štrasburg 27. marca Edenburg 1. až 2. apríla. Rappahannock Crossing 18. apríla Bitka pri Cedar Mountain 9. augusta 9. Pápežova kampaň v Severnej Virgínii 16. augusta-2. septembra Stanica Rappahannock 20. a 23. augusta. Gap Thoroughfare 28. augusta Bull Run 30. augusta Chantilly 1. september 1. Marylandská kampaň september-október. Bitky na South Mountain 14. septembra a Antietamu 16.-17. septembra. Povinnosť v Sharpsburgu do 30. októbra. Presun do Warrentonu, odtiaľ do Falmouthu, Va., 30. októbra-19. novembra. Bitka pri Fredericksburgu 12.-15. decembra. „Bahenný marec“ 20.-24. januára 1863. Vo Falmouthe a Belle Plain, štát Va., do 27. apríla. Kampaň Chancellorsville, 27. apríla-6. mája. Operácie v Pollockovom mlynskom potoku, 29. apríla-2. mája, Fitzhughov prechod 29.-30. apríla. Bitka pri Chancellorsville 1.-5. mája. Kampaň v Gettysburgu (Pa.) 11. júna-24. júla Bitka pri Gettysburgu 1. až 3. júla. Strážna služba na Rapidane do októbra. Kampaň Bristoe 9.-22. októbra. Postup na líniu Rappahannock 7.-8. novembra. Kampaň za spustenie dolu, 26. november-2. december Demonštrácia na Rapidane 6.-7. februára 1864. Kampaň od Rapidanu na James-máj-jún 1864. Bitky v divočine 5.-7. Laurel Hill 8. mája Spottsylvania 8.-12. mája Súdny dom Spottsylvania 12. mája 21:21. Útok na výbežok 12. mája Severná rieka Anna 23.-26. mája. Jericho Ford 23. mája. Linka Pamunkey 26.-28. mája. Totopotomoy 28.-31. mája. Cold Harbor 1.-12. júna. Kostol Bethesda 1.-3. júna Bažina bieleho duba 13. júna Pred Petrohradom 16.-18. júna. Objednané domov na zhromaždenie 25. júna. Zosadené 8. júla 1864.

Pluk stratil počas služby 18 dôstojníkov a 175 poddôstojníkov zabitých a smrteľne zranených a 83 poddôstojníkov z dôvodu choroby. Spolu 276.

13. pluk pechoty

Organizovaná vo Fort Independence 16. júna 1861. Left State for Washington, DC, July 30. Pripojený k Stile's Brigade, Banks 'Division, Army of Potomac, to October, 1861. Abercrombie's Brigade, Banks' Division, to March, 1862. 2. brigáda, 1. divízia, Banksov 5. armádny zbor a oddelenie Shenandoah, do mája 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, oddelenie Rappahannock, do júna 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, 3. armádny zbor, Armády Virginie, do septembra 1862. 3. brigáda, 2. divízia, 1. armádny zbor Armáda Potomac, do mája 1863. 1. brigáda, 2. divízia, 1. armádny zbor, do marca 1864. 1. brigáda, 2. divízia, 5. armáda Armádneho zboru, do júna 1864. 1. brigáda, 3. divízia, 5. armádny zbor, do júla 1864.

SLUŽBA-Hliadka a základňa na Hornom Potomacu do marca 1862. Akcia v Bellerovom mlyne, neďaleko Harper's Ferry, W. Va., 2. septembra 1861. Pritchard's Mills 18. septembra (2 Cos.). Bolivar Heights v blízkosti Harper's Ferry, 16. októbra (Cos. & QuotC, & quot; & quot; & quot; & quot; & & quot; K & quot; oddelené v Hancocku, MD, 5.-30. januára 1862.) Operácie v údolí Shenandoah v marci a apríli. Okupácia Winchesteru, VA. 12. marca. Hon na Jacksona v údolí 24. marca-27. apríla. Strážna služba na železnici Orange & amp Alexandria 3.-18. mája. Bitka o Cedar Mountain 9. augusta Pápežova kampaň v Severnej Virgínii 16. augusta-2. septembra Rozdiel v ceste 28. augusta Bitka o Bull Run 30. augusta Chantilly 1. septembra Kampaň v Marylande september-október. Bitky na South Mountain 14. septembra a Antietamu 16.-17. septembra. V Sharpsburgu do 30. októbra Presun do Warrentonu, odtiaľ do Falmouthu, Va., 30. októbra-19. novembra Bitka pri Fredericksburgu 12.-15. decembra. „Pochod bahna“ 20.-24. januára 1863. Vo Falmouthe a Belle Plain do 27. apríla. Kampaň Chancellorsville, 27. apríla-6. apríla. Operácie v Pollockovom mlynskom potoku, 29. apríla-2. mája, Fitzhughov prechod 29.-30. apríla. Bitka pri Chancellorsville 2.-5. mája. Kampaň v Gettysburgu (Pa.) 11. júna-24. júla Bitka pri Gettysburgu 1. až 3. júla. Strážna služba pozdĺž Rapidanu do októbra -. Kampaň Bristoe 9.-22. októbra. Postup na líniu Rappahanock 7.-8. novembra. Kampaň za spustenie dolu, 26. november-2. december Povinnosť železnice Orange & amp Alexandria do apríla 1864. Demonštrácie na Rapidane 6.-7. februára. Kampaň od Rapidanu po James May-jún. Bitky divočiny 5.-7. mája Spottsylvania 8.-12. mája Spottsylvania Court House 12.-21. mája. Útok na výbežok 12. mája Severná rieka Anna 23.-26. mája. Jericho Ford 23. mája Riadok Pamunkey 26.-28. júna. Totopotomoy 28.-31. mája. Cold Harbor 1.-12. júna. Kostol Bethesda 1.-3. júna Bažina bieleho duba 13. júna Pred Petrohradom 16.-18. júna. Obliehanie Petrohradu 16. júna-14. júla zhromaždené 1. augusta 1864.

Pluk stratil počas služby 4 dôstojníkov a 117 poddôstojníkov zabitých a smrteľne zranených a 40 poddôstojníkov z dôvodu choroby. Spolu 161.

14. pluk (Essex County Regiment)

Organizovaná vo Fort Warren a zhromaždená 5. júla 1861. Odišiel zo štátu do Washingtonu, 7. augusta 7. V tábore Kalorama do 18. augusta Presťahovaný do Fort Albany. Posádková služba v obrane Washingtonu do januára 1862. Označenie pluku bolo zmenené rozkazom vojnového oddelenia na 1. Massachusetts ťažké delostrelectvo 1. januára 1862. (Pozri 1. ťažké delostrelectvo.

15. pluk pechoty

Organizovaná vo Worcesteri a zhromaždená 12. júna 1861. Presťahovaná do Washingtonu, DC, 8.-11. augusta. Pripojený k nemeckej brigáde, Stoneovej (Sedgwickovej) divízii, armáde Potomacu, k marcu 1862. 1. brigáda, 2. divízia, 2. armádny zbor, armáda Potomacu, k júlu 1864.

SLUŽBA-V kempe Kalorama do 25. augusta 1861. Marec do Poolesville, MD, 25.-27. augusta. Piket a základňa na Hornom Potomacu od Conradovho trajektu na Harrisonov ostrov do 20. októbra Operácie na Potomacu 21.-24. októbra. Battle of Ball's Bluff October 21. At Harper's Ferry and Bolivar Heights until March 7, 1862. At Charlestown until March 10. At Berryville until March 13. Movement toward Winchester and return to Bolivar Heights March 13-15. Moved to Fortress Monroe March 22-April 1. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Peach Orchard and Savage Station June 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, and to Centreville August 29-30. Cover Pope's retreat August 31-September 1. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22 and duty there until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 20. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Banks' Ford May 4. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 2-4. Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Robertson's Tavern or Locust Grove November 27. Morton's Ford February 6-7, 1864. Picketing Rapidan until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Po River May 10 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient at Spottsylvania Court House May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-July 12. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Left the front July 12. Mustered out July 28, 1864. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 20th Massachusetts.

Regiment lost during service 14 Officers and 227 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 121 Enlisted men by disease. Total 363.

16th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Camp Cameron, Cambridge, June 29, 1861. Left State for Old Point Comfort, Va., August 17. Attached to Fortress Monroe, Dept. of Virginia, to May, 1862, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of Virginia, to June, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, 2nd Army Corps, to May, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1864.

SERVICE.--Garrison duty at Fortress Monroe, Va., September 1, 1862, to May 8, 1862. Occupation of Norfolk May 10. Moved to Suffolk May 17, and joined Army of the Potomac at Fair Oaks June 13. Nine-Mile Road, near Richmond, June 18. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1 and August 5. Duty at Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Fortress Monroe, thence to Centreville August 15-26. Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, August 27. Battles of Groveton August 29 Bull Run August 30 Chantilly September 1. Duty at Fort Lyon and at Fairfax Station, Defenses of Washington, until October 30, and at Munson's Hill until November 2. At Fairfax Station until November 25. Operations on Orange & Alexandria Railroad November 10-12. Rappahannock Campaign December, 1862, to June, 1863. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3. Wapping Heights, Va,, July 23. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to the Rappahannock November 7-8. Kelly's Ford November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Duty near Brandy Station until May, 1864. Rapidan Campaign May-June, Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient, Spottsylvania Court House, May 12. Harris' Farm, Fredericksburg Road, May 19. North Anna River May 23-26. Ox Ford May 23-24. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-July 11. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Left front for muster out July 11. Veterans and Recruits transferred to the 11th Massachusetts Infantry. Mustered out July 27, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 16 Officers and 134 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 93 Enlisted men by disease. Total 245.

17th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield July 22, 1861. Left State for Baltimore, Md., August 23. Attached to Dix's Command, Baltimore, Md., to March, 1862. Foster's 1st Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to December, 1862. Amory's Brigade, Dept. of North Carolina, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1863, Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to July, 1864. Sub-District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to January, 1865. Sub-District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Beaufort, N. C, Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. 1st Brigade, Division District of Beaufort, to April, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 23rd Army Corps, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Duty at Baltimore, Md., until March, 1862. Ordered to New Berne, N. C., March 12, and duty there until December. Reconnaissance toward Trenton May 15-16. Trenton Bridge May 15. Trenton and Pollocksville Road May 22 (Co. "I"). Expedition to Trenton and Pollocksville July 24-28. Demonstration on New Berne November 11. Foster's Expedition to Goldsboro December 11-20. Kinston December 14. Whitehall December 16. Goldsboro December 17. Provost duty at and near New Berne until April, 1863. March to relief of Washington, N. C., April 7-10. Blount's Creek April 9. Expedition to Washington April 17-19. Expedition toward Kinston April 27-May 1. Wise's Cross Roads and Dover Road April 28. Expedition to Thenton July 4-8. Quaker Bridge July 6. Raid on Weldon July 25-August 1. Duty at New Berne until February, 1864. Operations about New Berne against Whiting January 18-February 10, 1864. Skirmishes at Beech Creek and Batchelor's Creek February 1-3. Expedition to Washington April 18-22. Washington April 27-28. Duty at New Berne and vicinity until July 27, and at Newport Barracks until September 23. Veterans on furlough until November 10. Duty at Newport Barracks November 20, 1864, to March 4, 1865. Moved to Core Creek. Battle of Wise's Forks March 8-10, 1865. Occupation of Kinston March 15. Occupation of Goldsboro March 21. Advance on Raleigh April 9-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Duty at Greensboro May 5-July 11. Mustered out at Greensboro, N. C., July 11, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 21 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 147 Enlisted men by disease. Total 172.

18th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Readville and Boston and mustered in August 27, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 28. Attached to Fort Corcoran, Defenses of Washington, to October, 1861. Martindale's Brigade, Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty at Fort Corcoran, Defenses of Washington, D.C., until September 26, 1861, and at Hall's Hill, Va., until March 10, 1862. Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-16, 1862. Moved to Alexandria, thence to Fortress Monroe March 16-23. Reconnaissance to Great Bethel March 27. Warwick Road April 5. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Battle of Hanover Court House May 27. Operations about Hanover Court House May 27-29. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Operations about White House Landing June 26-July 2. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Retreat from the Peninsula and movement to Centreville August 15-28. Battle of Bull Run August 30. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Shepherdstown Ford September 19. Shepherdstown, W. Va., September 20. At Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. Expedition to Richards and Ellis Fords December 29-30. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. Duty at Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa,) Campaign June 11-July 24. Ashby's Gap June 21. Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3. Williamsport, Md., July 14. At Warrenton and Beverly Ford July 27 to September 17, and at Culpeper until October 11. Bristoe Campaign October 11-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. At and near Brandy Station and Stevensburg until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7 Laurel Hill May 8 Spottsylvania May 8-12 Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Jericho Ford May 23. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16 to October 21. Weldon Railroad June 21-23. Old members left front July 20 and mustered out September 2, 1864. Veterans and Recruits consolidated to a Battalion. Poplar Springs' Church, Peeble's Farm, September 30-October 2. Consolidated with 32nd Massachusetts Infantry October 21, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 9 Officers and 114 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 127 Enlisted men by disease. Total 252.

19th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield August 28, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., August 30. Attached to Lander's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Lander's Brigade, Stone's (Sedgwick's) Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.---Camp at Meridian Hill until September 12, 1861. Moved to Poolesville, Md., September 12-15. Guard duty on the Upper Potomac until December. Operations on the Potomac October 21-24. Action at Ball's Bluff October 21. Moved to Muddy Run December 4, and duty there until March 12, 1862. Moved to Harper's Ferry, thence to Charlestown and Berryville March 12-15. Ordered to Washington, D.C., March 24, and to the Peninsula March 27. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. West Point May 7-8. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. Peach Orchard and Savage Station June 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. Harrison's Landing July 8. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, thence to Fairfax C. H. August 28-31. Cover Pope's retreat from Bull Run August 31-September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battle of South Mountain September 14 (Reserve). Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22, and duty there until October 30. Advance up Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 17. Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15. (Forlorn hope to cross Rappahannock at Fredericksburg December 11.) Duty at Falmouth, Va., until April, 1863. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes' Heights. Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4, Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Robertson's Tavern, or Locust Grove, November 27. At Stevensburg until May, 1864. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Po River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864. to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Watkin's House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge and Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington May 2-13. Grand Review May 23. Duty at Washington until June 30. Mustered out June 30 and discharged July 22, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 14 Officers and 147 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 133 Enlisted men by disease. Total 294.

20th Regiment Infantry

Organized at Readville August 29 to September 4, 1861. Left State for Washington, D.C., September 4. Attached to Lander's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, to October, 1861. Lander's Brigade, Stone's (Sedgwick's) Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, to July, 1865.

SERVICE.--Moved to Poolesville, Md., September 12-15, 1861. Guard duty along Upper Potomac until December. Operations on the Potomac October 21-24. Action at Ball's Bluff October 21. Near Edwards' Ferry October 22. Moved to Muddy Branch December 4, and duty there until March 12, 1862. Moved to Harper's Ferry, thence to Charlestown and Berryville, March 12-15. Ordered to Washington, D.C., March 24, and to the Peninsula March 27. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. West Point May 7-8. Battle of Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, May 31-June 1. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Oak Grove, near Fair Oaks, June 25. Peach Orchard and Savage Station July 29. White Oak Swamp and Glendale June 30. Malvern Hill July 1 and August 5. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Movement to Alexandria August 15-28, thence march to Fairfax C. H. August 28-31. Cover retreat of Pope's army from Bull Run August 31-September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. South Mountain, Md., September 14 (Reserve). Battle of Antietam September 16-17. Moved to Harper's Ferry September 22, and duty there until October 30. Reconnaissance to Charlestown October 16-17. Advance up Loudon Valley and movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 17. Battles of Fredericksburg December 11-15. (Forlorn hope to cross Rappahannock December 11.) Duty at Falmouth until April. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. Advance from the Rappahannock to the Rapidan September 13-17. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Bristoe Station October 14, Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Demonstration on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. At Stevensburg until May. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Po River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27-29. Deep Bottom July 27-28. Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14-18. Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge and Farmville April 7. Appomattox C. H. April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington, D.C., May 2-15. Grand Review May 23. Duty at Washington until July 15. Mustered out July 16 and discharged July 28, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 17 Officers and 243 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 148 Enlisted men by disease, Total 409.

21st Regiment Infantry

Organized at Worcester July 19 to August 19, 1861. Moved to Baltimore, Md., August 23-25 thence to Annapolis, Md., August 29 and duty there until January 6, 1862. Attached to Reno's 2nd Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to April, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to June, 1863. Unassigned, 1st Division, 23rd Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to October, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 9th Army Corps, Dept. of the Ohio, to April, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, to September, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Burnside's Expedition to Hatteras Inlet January 6-February 7, 1862. Battle of Roanoke Island February 8. At Roanoke Island until March 11. Moved to New Berne March 11-13. Battle of New Berne March 14. Expedition to Elizabeth City April 17-19. Battle of Camden, South Mills, April 19. Duty at New Berne until July 6. Expedition to Pollocksville to relief of 2nd Maryland, May 17. Moved to Newport News, Va., July 6-9 thence to Fredericksburg August 2-4. March to relief of Gen. Pope August 12-15. Pope's Campaign in Northern Virginia August 16-September 2. Battles of Groveton August 29. Bull Run August 30, and Chantilly September 1. Maryland Campaign September-October. Battles of South Mountain September 14, and Antietam September 16-17. At Pleasant Valley, Md., until October 27. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 27-November 17. Warrenton, Sulphur Springs, November 15. Battle of Fredericksburg December 12-15. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until February 19. Moved to Newport News, Va., and duty there until March 26. Moved to Covington, Ky., March 26-April 1. At Paris, Ky., April 1-5. At Mt. Sterling until July 6, and at Camp Nelson until September 12. March to Knoxville September 12-20. Operations in East Tennessee October 22-November 4. Knoxville Campaign November 4-December 23. Campbell's Station December 16. Siege of Knoxville November 17-December 4. Pursuit of Longstreet December 5-29. Reenlisted December 29. Veterans absent on furlough January to March, 1864. Moved to Annapolis, Md., and Join 9th Army Corps. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Ny River May 10. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Ox Ford May 24. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16-October 21. Mine Explosion, Petersburg, July 30. Non-Veterans left front August 18 and mustered out August 30. 1864. Weldon Railroad August 18-21. Poplar Springs Church, Peeble's Farm, September 29-October 2. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 36th Massachusetts Infantry October 21, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 11 Officers and 148 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 89 Enlisted men by disease. Total 250.

22nd Regiment Infantry

Organized at Lynnfield September 4 to October 6, 1861. Moved to Washington, D.C., October 8-11. Attached to Martindale's Brigade, Porter's Division, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to May, 1862. 1st Brigade. 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Army Corps, to October, 1864.

SERVICE.--Duty at Hall's Hill, Va. Defenses of Washington until March, 1862. Advance on Manassas, Va., March 10-16. Moved to Alexandria, thence to Fortress Monroe, Va., March 16-23. Warwick Road April 5. Siege of Yorktown April 5-May 4. Hanover C. H. May 27. Operations about Hanover C. H. May 27-29. Seven days before Richmond June 25-July 1. Mechanicsville June 26. Gaines' Mill June 27. White Oak Swamp and Turkey Bridge June 30. Malvern Hill July 1. At Harrison's Landing until August 15. Retreat from the Peninsula and movement to Centreville August 15-28. Battle of Bull Run August 30. Battle of Antietam, Md., September 16-17. Shepherdstown September 19. At Sharpsburg until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. Expedition to Richards' and Ellis' Fords December 29-30. "Mud March" January 20-24, 1863. At Falmouth until April 27. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-5. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 11-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. At Warrenton and Beverly Ford until September 17. At Culpeper until October 11. Bristoe Campaign October 11-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. At Beverly Ford until May, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May-June. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7. Laurel Hill May 8. Spottsylvania May 8-12. Spottsylvania C. H. May 12-21. Assault on the Salient May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. Line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Bethesda Church June 1-3. Before Petersburg June 16-18. Siege of Petersburg June 16 to August 8. Relieved August 8 and guard duty at City Point until October 5. Mustered out October 17. 1864.

Regiment lost during service 9 Officers and 207 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 102 Enlisted men by disease. Total 319.

23rd Regiment Infantry

Organized September 28, 1861. Left State for Annapolis, Md., November 11, and duty there until January 6, 1862. Attached to Foster's 1st Brigade, Burnside's Expeditionary Corps, to April, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of North Carolina, to December, 1862. Heckman's Brigade, Dept. of North Carolina, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of North Carolina, to February, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1863. District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to July, 1863. Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept, of Virginia and North Carolina, to October, 1863. Heckman's Command, Newport News, Va., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to January, 1864. 3rd Brigade, United States Forces, Portsmouth, Va., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 18th Army Corps, Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to September, 1864. Defenses of New Berne, N. C., Dept. of Virginia and North Carolina, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, District of Beaufort, N. C., Dept. of North Carolina, to March, 1865. District of Beaufort, Dept. of North Carolina, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Burnside's Expedition to Hatteras Inlet and Roanoke Island, N. C., January 6-February 7, 1862. Battle of Roanoke Island February 8. On transports off Roanoke Island until March 11. Moved to New Berne, N. C., March 11-13. Battle of New Berne March 14. Duty at New Berne until April 11. and at Batchelor's Creek until May 4. Batchelor's Creek April 29. Provost duty at New Berne, N. C., until November 22. Expedition from New Berne November 2-12. Action at Rawle's Mill November 2 (Cos. "B," "C," "D," "G" and "I"). Demonstration on New Berne November 11. Picket and outpost duty in vicinity of New Berne until December 10. Foster's Expedition to Goldsboro December 11-20. Southwest Creek December 13-14. Kinston December 14. Whitehall December 16. Goldsboro December 17. Moved to Carolina City January 13, 1863 thence to Morehead City and Hilton Head, S.C., January 19-February 2. Camp at St. Helena Island, S.C., February 11-April 3, Expedition against Charleston April 3-10. Moved to New Berne April 12-16. March to relief of Little Washington April 17-19. Moved to Carolina City, N. C., April 25, and duty there until July 2. (Co. "D" detached at Fort Spinola June 26). Reconnaissance toward Swansbore June 27 (Co. "H"). Expedition to Trenton and Pollocksville July 4-8 (Cos. "C," "G," "H" and "K"). Action at Quaker Bridge July 6 (Cos. "A," "B," "E," "F" and "I"). Ordered to New Berne July 2, and duty in the Defenses of the city until October 16. Expedition from Newport Barracks to Cedar Point July 13-16. Moved to Newport News, Va., October 16-18, and duty there until January 22, 1864. Moved to Portsmouth, Va., January 22. Duty there and at Getty's Station, on Norfolk & Suffolk Railroad, until April 26. Demonstration on Portsmouth March 1-5. Expedition to Isle of Wight County April 13-15. Action at Smithfield, Cherry Grove, April 14. Moved to Yorktown April 26. Butler's operations on south side of James River and against Petersburg and Richmond May 4-28. Port Walthal Junction, Chester Station, May 6-7. Swift's Creek, Arrowfield Church, May 9-10. Operations against Fort Darling May 12-16. Drury's Bluff May 14-16. Bermuda Hundred May 16-28. Moved to White House, thence to Cold Harbor, May 28-June 1. Battles about Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 15-18. Siege of Petersburg June 15-September 4. Mine Explosion July 30 (Reserve). Duty in the trenches at Bermuda Hundred, Va., August 25-September 4. Moved to New Berne, N. C., September 4-10. Picket, guard and patrol duty there until March 3, 1865. Affair at Currituck Bridge September 9 (Detachment). Non-Veterans mustered out September 28, 1864. Movements on Goldsboro March 3-14. Southwest Creek March 7. Battle of Wise's Forks March 8-10. Occupation of Kinston March 14, and duty there until May 2. Moved to New Berne May 2, and duty there until June 25. Mustered out June 25, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 80 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 132 Enlisted men by disease. Total 218.

Source - "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" by Frederick H. Dyer (Part 3)


World History Events in the Decade 1910-1919

The second decade of the 19th century is dominated by events of World War I, a four-year battle which involved Britain, France, and Russia, and Germany, the Austro-Hungarian empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and eventually the United States.

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In February of 1910, the Boy Scout Association was founded by W.S. Boyce, Edward S. Stewart, and Stanley D. Willis. One of several youth organizations at the time, the BSA grew to become the largest and most successful of all. Halley's Comet arrived in the inner Solar System and came into ​naked-eye view on April 10. The tango, a dance and its music derived from a cultural blend of Cuban, Argentinian, and African rhythms, began to catch fire around the world.

On March 25, 1911, New York City's Triangle Shirtwaist factory caught fire and killed 500 workers, leading to the establishment of building, fire, and safety codes. The Chinese or Xinghai Revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10. On May 15, and after John D. Rockefeller lost an anti-trust battle in the Supreme Court, Standard Oil was broken into 34 separate companies.

In science, British physicist Ernest Rutherford published a paper in the Philosophical Magazine describing what would become known as the Rutherford model of the atom. American archaeologist Hiram Bingham first saw the Incan city of Machu Picchu on July 24, and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen reached the geographic South Pole on Dec. 14.

Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa was stolen off the wall of the Louvre Museum on Aug. 21, and not returned to France until 1913. Although the modern parachute was invented in the 18th century, a successful test of inventor Charles Broadwick's version was held in Paris, when a dummy wearing one was chucked off the Eiffel tower in Paris.

In 1912, Nabisco made its first Oreo cookie, two chocolate disks with creme filling and not very different from those we get today. Charles Dawson claimed to have discovered the "Piltdown Man," a blend of stained animal bones not revealed as a fraud until 1949. On April 14, the steamship RMS Titanic struck an iceberg and sank the next day, killing over 1,500 passengers and crew.​

Puyi, the last Emperor of China and aged 6 at the time, was forced to abdicate his throne as emperor, after the conclusion of the Xinhai Revolution.

The first crossword puzzle was published in the New York World on Dec. 21, 1913, constructed by Liverpool journalist Arthur Wynne. The Grand Central Terminal was completed and opened to New Yorkers on Feb. 2. Henry Ford opened his first automobile assembly line to produce the Model T in Highland Park, Michigan on Dec. 1. The Los Angeles Aqueduct system, a.k.a. Owens Valley aqueduct was completed this year, flooding the town of Owens Valley. And also in 1913, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, allowing the government to collect ​personal income tax. The first Form 1040 was created in October.

World War I started in August of 2014, initiated by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo on June 28. The first major battle was the Battle of Tannenberg between Russia and Germany, Aug. 26–30 and trench warfare was begun in the First Battle of the Marne, Sept. 6–12.

The 24-year-old Charlie Chaplin first appeared in movie theaters as the Little Tramp in Henry Lehman's "Kid Auto Races at Venice." Ernest Shackleton set sail in the Endurance on his four-year-long Trans-Antarctic Expedition on Aug. 6. The first modern red-green traffic lights were installed on city streets of Cleveland, Ohio and Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica. The Panama Canal was completed in 1914 and in the most powerful eruption in 20th century Japan, the Sakurajima (Cherry Blossom Island) volcano generated lava flows that continued for months.

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Most of 1915 was focused on the expanding World War I. The bloody Gallipoli Campaign took place in Turkey on Feb. 17, the only major Ottoman victory of the war. On April 22, German forces used 150 tons of chlorine gas against French forces at the Second Battle of Ypres, the first use of modern chemical warfare. The Armenian Genocide, during which the Ottoman Empire systematically exterminated 1.5 million Armenians, began on April 24, with the deportation of about 250 intellectuals and community leaders from Constantinople. On May 7, the British ocean liner RMS Lusitania was torpedoed by a German U-boat and sunk.

On Sept. 4, the last of the Romanovs Tsar Nicholas II formally took command of the Russia Army, despite nearly unanimous opposition from his cabinet. On Oct. 12, British nurse Edith Cavell was executed for treason in German-occupied Belgium. On Dec. 18, Woodrow Wilson became the first sitting president to marry during his term of office, when he wed Edith Bolling Galt.

D.W. Griffith's controversial film "The Birth of a Nation" which portrays African Americans in a negative light and glorifies the Ku Klux Klan, was released on Feb. 5 national interest in the Ku Klux Klan was revived by this event.

In inventions, on Dec. 10, Henry Ford's one-millionth Model T rolled off the assembly line at the River Rouge plant in Detroit. In New York, Alexander Graham Bell made his first transcontinental telephone call to his assistant Thomas Watson in San Francisco on Jan. 25. Of course, Bell repeated his famous phrase "Mr. Watson come here, I want you," to which Watson replied, "It will take me five days to get there now!"

World War I worsened in 1916, with two of the largest, longest and most blood-soaked battles. At the Battle of the Somme, 1.5 million people were killed between July 1 and Nov. 18, counting French, British, and Germans. The British used the first tanks there, the British Mark I on Sept. 15. The Battle of Verdun lasted between Feb. 21 and Dec. 18, killing an estimated 1.25 million. A battle held in December in the South Tyrol region of northern Italy caused an avalanche, killing 10,000 Austro-Hungarian and Italian soldiers. WWI flying ace Manfred von Richthofen (a.k.a. the Red Baron) shot down his first enemy aircraft on Sept. 1.

Between July 1 and 12, a series of Great White shark attacks off the Jersey shore killed four people, injured another, and terrified thousands. On Nov. 17, Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, became the first American woman ever elected to Congress. John D. Rockefeller became the first American billionaire.

On October 6, a group of artists met and put on performances at the Cabaret Voltaire to express their disgust with World War I and found the anti-art movement known as Dada. On Easter morning, April 24, a group of Irish nationalists proclaimed the establishment of the Irish Republic and seized prominent buildings in Dublin.

The first self-help grocery, a Piggly-Wiggly, was opened in Memphis Tennessee by Clarence Saunders. Grigori Rasputin, the Mad Monk and favorite of the Russian heads of state, was murdered in the early morning of December 30. Margaret Sanger set up the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn on October 16, after which she was promptly arrested.

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The first Pulitzer Prize was awarded in Journalism to French Ambassador Jean Jules Jusserand, for his book on American history he won $2000. The exotic dancer and spy Mata Hari was arrested by the French and executed on Oct. 15, 1917. The Russian Revolution began in February with the toppling of the Russian monarchy.

On April 16, the Congress declared war on Germany and the United States officially joined its allies Britain, France, and Russia, fighting in World War I.

Russian Czar Nicholas II and his family were all killed on the night of July 16-17. The Spanish flu pandemic likely began in Fort Riley, Kansas in March of 1918, and spread along with its infected soldiers into France by mid-May.

On April 20, 1916, Germany and Austria began saving daylight to conserve fuel needed to produce electric power the U.S. formally adopted this standard on March 31, 1918. During the October 7, 1918 Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sergeant York became a war hero and future movie subject.

The right-wing anti-Semitic and nationalistic German Workers' Party was founded on Jan. 5, 1919, and on Sept. 12, Adolf Hitler attended his first meeting. The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28 and registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on Oct. 21.


Document: Diary of Lewis Timothy Litchfield

This diary, housed at the Kenneth Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas, takes modern readers several steps back to the first few months of Lawrence’s settlement. The first-hand account offers up detailed descriptions of the settlers’ religious motivations, their long journey to Kansas which included stops in Kansas City and Westport, the author’s first view of the future town site on the Kansas or “Kaw” River, disputes with Missouri “border ruffians,” the materials and methods the settlers used to construct buildings, and a few surprises along the way.

From sources besides this diary, we know that the first party of representatives from the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society surveyed the area in July 1854. They were led by Dr. Charles Robinson and Charles H. Branscomb, who selected a site west of the confluence of the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers on August 1, 1854, which they believed to be the best in Kansas Territory for a new settlement.

Lewis Timothy Litchfield’s diary begins by describing the second party, which according to the diary was led by Charles Robinson and Samuel C. Pomeroy and left Boston on August 29, 1854, arrived at the future site of Lawrence on September 9, and immediately began to establish the as-yet-unnamed town. Most of the diary appears to have been written retrospectively some months or years after the events described, which means that it is well-organized (even labeled with six “chapters”), but it is sometimes difficult to know the exact dates of the events described.

The party rode a train through Syracuse, Buffalo, and Detroit, and Litchfield likened “this scene to the one of our forefathers crossing the Broad Atlantic to make their home in the new world.” The party continued by rail through Chicago to St. Louis and then traveled on the Missouri River to Kansas City, where they disembarked at the city’s well-known landing, purchased supplies, and rested for three days. Their last stop prior to entering Kansas was at Westport, Missouri, which Litchfield described as “a flourishing town composed mostly of men of little or no principle who boast on their staunch proslavery principles.”

Upon receiving a rifle from the citizens of Leominster, Massachusetts, Litchfield wrote, “Of this I shall say nothing, as I intend that the rifle is to become a part of my person as much as an arm or hand, and so long as the warm blood runs through my veins, it shall never be . by the touch of a slaveholder.” No summary of the rest of the document would do it justice, as the linked transcription is quite readable, but among other events, Litchfield describes the naming of the town and the construction of the first makeshift building in Lawrence, which ultimately served as a sort of boarding house and hotel, operated by Litchfield and his wife, for new migrants to Kansas. Litchfield recounted armed standoffs with Missouri border ruffians who challenged the Kansas settler’s claims to the site and backed down only when the settlers “cool[ed] their ardor a little . with shotguns, rifles[,] pistols, and every kind of firearms.”

No blood is shed in this diary, but a small amount of background research unveils a gloomier story. In the document, Litchfield made it clear that he believed it was his God-given duty to be willing to use force, if necessary, to fight against slavery. At the beginning of the Civil War, Litchfield was a member of the Kansas Rifles militia, which had become known as “the Stubbs” for its men’s short stature and history of fighting Missouri border ruffians.

“The Stubbs” were mustered into the First Regiment of the Kansas Volunteer Infantry as Company D and soon fought at the pivotal Battle of Wilson’s Creek outside Springfield, Missouri, on August 10, 1861. In that battle, Nathaniel Lyon became the first Union general to die in the Civil War, and the early tide of the war in Missouri temporarily shifted in the favor of the South. For his part, it is documented in the resources listed below that Lewis Timothy Litchfield suffered the same fate as General Lyon at Wilson’s Creek.


Pozri si video: Rome total war 2 bitka pri Pydne triler (December 2022).

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