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Quentin Bell

Quentin Bell


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Quentin Bell, mladší syn Clive Hewarda Bella a jeho manželky Vanessy Bell, dcéry Leslie Stephena a sestry Virginie Woolfovej, sa narodil 19. augusta 1910. Bol vychovaný v rodinnom dome na námestí 46 Gordon Square a na farme v Charlestone, neďaleko Firle. Rovnako ako jeho brat Julian Bell bol vzdelaný na Leighton Park School, internátnej škole Quaker v Readingu.

Talentovaný umelec Bell opustil školu v sedemnástich a vydal sa na turné po stredoeurópskych galériách so známym kritikom umenia Rogerom Fryom. Obdobia maľovania strávil v Paríži aj v Ríme.

V roku 1933 bol Bell nútený stráviť sedem mesiacov v sanatóriu vo Švajčiarsku, po ktorom nasledovala rekonvalescencia pri Monaku. V roku 1935 sa vrátil do Talianska a mal prvú výstavu v galérii Mayor. Neskôr toho roku sa však rozhodol stať sa hrnčiarom a nie maliarom a zapísal sa na Burslemovu školu umenia. Keď žil v Stoke-on-Trent, stal sa aktívnym členom labouristickej strany. Nakoniec založil štúdio v Charleston Farmhouse, kde pracovala aj jeho matka výtvarníčka Vanessa Bell a jej bývalý milenec Duncan Grant.

Podľa Leonarda Woolfa sa Bell stal členom skupiny Bloomsbury: „V dvadsiatych a tridsiatych rokoch minulého storočia, keď sa Old Bloomsbury zúžilo a rozšírilo na novší Bloomsbury, stratilo smrťou Lyttona (Strachey) a Rogera (Fry) a pridalo k jeho číslam, Julian, Quentin a Angelica Bell a David (Bunny) Garnett. "

Jeho rodičia boli počas prvej svetovej vojny pacifistami. Bell bol ochotný vstúpiť do britskej armády po vypuknutí druhej svetovej vojny, ale keďže bol v zlom zdravotnom stave, bol zo zdravotných dôvodov odmietnutý. Pracoval preto na farme, ktorú vlastnil John Maynard Keynes neďaleko Firle. Pripojil sa aj k svojej matke Vanesse Bell a jej bývalému milencovi Duncanovi Grantovi pri poskytovaní nástenných malieb v kostole Berwick, ktoré boli dokončené v roku 1943. David Garnett ho tiež zamestnal v oddelení politického boja ministerstva zahraničných vecí.

V roku 1947 Bell vydal svoju prvú veľkú knihu, O ľudskej dokonalosti, štúdia histórie módy. 16. februára 1952 sa oženil s historikom umenia Olivierom Pophamom. Krátko nato sa stal odborným asistentom na King's College v Newcastle upon Tyne. V roku 1959 prešiel na Leeds Art School. Učil tiež na Slade Art School a Hull Art School. V roku 1967 sa stal profesorom histórie a teórie umenia na Sussex University.

Bell bol členom Bloomsbury Circle, skupiny, v ktorej boli Virginie Woolfová, Vanessa Bell, Clive Bell, John Maynard Keynes, Adrian Stephen, EM Forster, Leonard Woolf, Lytton Strachey, Desmond MacCarthy, Mary MacCarthy, Duncan Grant, Arthur Waley a Saxon Sydney-Turner. Mal preto dobrú pozíciu na publikovanie Bloomsbury (1968) a dvojzväzkový životopis jeho tety v jeho uznávaní Virginia Woolfová: Životopis (1972).

Podľa jeho životopisca Charlesa Saumareza Smitha: „Po odchode zo svojho postu v Sussexe v roku 1975 bol Bell schopný venovať viac času a energie svojej keramike. V roku 1985 sa s manželkou Olivier presťahovali do menšieho domu vedľa v parku vo Firle a každé ráno sa prebúdzal a zmizol do svojej pece, kde sa večer objavil iba na gin a zázvorové pivo. Vykonal zmes práce, hrubých, maľovaných tanierov a hrnčekov, ktoré považoval za patriace do remeselná tradícia, ale aj ambicióznejšia keramická plastika. Žiadny štýl pohodlne nezapadal do tvorby súčasníkov, pretože jeho hrnce boli príliš úžitkové na to, aby ich bolo možné považovať za umenie, a jeho keramická plastika bola príliš konvenčne obrazná. To ho však nijako neodradilo od toho, aby sa ukázal. veľké množstvo práce, ktorá bola dynamická aj cenovo dostupná, kríženie medzi dielňou Omega a ľudovým umením. “

Bell pomohol založiť Charleston Trust, ktorý bol zodpovedný za záchranu domu jeho matky. Medzi ďalšie knihy patrí román, The Brandon Papers (1985), zborník esejí a prednášok v Zlé umenie (1989) a sériu náčrtov postáv, Starší a lepší (1995).

Quentin Bell zomrel vo svojom dome, 81 Heighton Street, Firle, East Sussex, 16. decembra 1996.

Potom v pondelok 3. júla, iba tri týždne po príchode do Anglicka, som šiel a obedoval s Vanessou a Clive Bell na Gordonovom námestí. Bol som s nimi na večeri sám, ale potom vošli Virginia, Duncan Grant a Walter Lamb. Toto bol, predpokladám, pokiaľ ide o mňa, začiatok niečoho, čo sa nazývalo Bloomsbury.

To, čo začalo byť vonkajším svetom nazývané „Bloomsbury“, nikdy neexistovalo v takej podobe, ako mu to dáva vonkajší svet. Pretože „Bloomsbury“ bol a je v súčasnej dobe používaný ako výraz - zvyčajne týraný - používaný pre do značnej miery vymyslenú skupinu osôb s do značnej miery vymyslenými predmetmi a charakteristikami. Bol som členom tejto skupiny a bol som tiež jedným z malého počtu osôb, ktoré v skutočnosti nakoniec vytvorili akúsi skupinu priateľov žijúcich v londýnskej štvrti alebo okolo nej, legitímne nazývanej Bloomsbury. Pojem Bloomsbury je možné legitímne použiť na túto skupinu a bude ho používať aj na týchto stránkach. Bloomsbury v tomto zmysle neexistovalo v roku 1911, keď som sa vrátil z Cejlónu; vznikla v troch rokoch 1912 až 1914. Pojem seba sme použili skôr, ako ho použil vonkajší svet, pretože v dvadsiatych a tridsiatych rokoch minulého storočia, keď naša mladšia generácia vyrastala a vydávala sa a niektorí z našej generácie už zomierali, hovorili sme o „starom“ Bloomsbury “, čo znamená pôvodných členov našej skupiny priateľov, ktorí v rokoch 1911 až 1914 prišli žiť do Bloomsbury alebo okolo neho.

Old Bloomsbury sa skladalo z týchto ľudí: Traja Stephens: Vanessa, vydatá za Clive Bell, Virginia, ktorá sa vydala za Leonarda Woolfa, a Adrian, ktorý si vzal Karin Costello; Lytton Strachey; Clive Bell; Leonard Woolf; Maynard Keynes; Duncan Grant; E. Forster (ktorý bude v tejto knihe označovaný ako Morgan Forster alebo Morgan); Saxon Sydney Turner; Roger Fry. Desmond MacCarthy a jeho manželka Molly, hoci v skutočnosti žili v Chelsea, nás vždy považovali za členov Old Bloomsbury. V 20. a 30. rokoch 20. storočia, keď sa Old Bloomsbury zúžilo a rozšírilo na novší Bloomsbury, stratilo smrťou Lyttona a Rogera a pridalo k svojim číslam Juliana, Quentina a Angelicu Bell a Davida (Bunnyho) Garnetta, ktorý sa oženil s Angelikou.

Bol jarný večer. Vanessa a ja sme sedeli v salóne .... Každú chvíľu mohol prísť Clive a on a ja by sme sa mali začať hádať - najskôr priateľsky, neosobne; čoskoro by sme na seba mali vrhať týranie a prechádzať sa po miestnosti. Vanessa mlčky sedela a robila so svojou ihlou alebo nožnicami niečo tajomné. Bezpochyby som egoisticky a vzrušene hovoril o svojich vlastných záležitostiach. Zrazu sa dvere otvorili a na prahu stála dlhá a zlovestná postava pána Lyttona Stracheya. Ukázal prstom na škvrnu na bielych šatách Vanessy.

„Sperma?“ povedal.

Dá sa to skutočne povedať? Pomyslel som si a vybuchli sme do smiechu. S týmto jediným slovom padli všetky bariéry zdržanlivosti a rezervovanosti. Záplava posvätnej tekutiny nás akoby zaplavila. Náš rozhovor prestúpil sex. Slovo bubák nebolo nikdy ďaleko od našich pier.

V januári 1966 sa Quentin Bell zaviazal napísať životopis Virginie Woolfovej. Východiskom boli očividne jej denníky. Leonard odložil svoje manilské obálky obsahujúce nasekané časti jeho kópií. Povedal to Quentinovi, s výpismi uverejnenými v Denník spisovateľaTeraz mal veľa. Nebolo to také ľahké. Skrátené stránky mali niekedy orezanú datovanú časť a chýbali kúsky. Našťastie Quentinova manželka Olivier bola vysoko vyškolená vedecká pracovníčka, ktorá bola v mladosti zamestnaná významnými učencami, aby „uviedla veci na správnu mieru“. Obnovila denníky a v ťažkostiach použila Leonardovu predlohu.

Prácu si uľahčili od začiatku roku 1967, keď bol Quentin vymenovaný za profesora histórie a teórie umenia na univerzite v Sussexe a on a jeho rodina začali žiť na Cobbe's Place, v okruhu niekoľkých kilometrov od Charlestonu a zhruba v rovnakej vzdialenosti od neho. a Monks House. Leonard pre nich zohnal zväzky a škatule listov vrátane kópií tých, ktoré predal. Bol nápomocný, ale neovládal, nevyvíjal žiadne tlaky. Quentin poslal Leonardovi „Správu o predbežnom výskume“ po jednom roku: hlavnou úlohou bolo dať 300 000 slov denníka do „použiteľnej podoby“. Spolu s Olivierom pripravovali životopisný register a poznámky. Tiež triedili noviny v Charlestone a plánovali rozhovor s ľuďmi, ktorí poznali Virginiu. Olivier zostrojil systém kartových indexov a chronológiu.


História zvonov

História zvonov sa začala rozvojom metalurgie v starovekej Číne. V roku 2000 pred n. L. Sa začali objavovať prvé zvony, ktoré sa pomaly dokázali vliať do čínskej kultúry, náboženstva a spôsobu života. S pribúdajúcimi storočiami sa stala tvorba zvonov a umenie, čo dáva umelcovi šancu vliať do nich rôzne obrázky a témy, ktoré upútali pozornosť Kráľovskej rodiny a šľachty v Číne. Zmenili spôsob používania zvonov a vytvárali z položky, ktorá symbolizovala bohatstvo, moc a vplyv. To všetko sa však zmenilo, keď sa zvony začali šíriť po Ázii od bohatej Indie až po krajinu vychádzajúceho slnka Japonsko. Toto rozšírenie prinieslo niekoľko dôležitých zmien v spôsobe používania zvonov - menšie zvony otvorene používali ľudia, ktorí chceli ľahký spôsob prenosu informácií na veľké vzdialenosti (napríklad oznamovanie konca pracovnej zmeny), hudobníci všetkých druhov adoptovaní malými a precízne vyrobenými zvony ako dôležitý nástroj, a čo je najdôležitejšie, náboženstvá ako budhizmus, hinduizmus, šintoizmus a dokonca aj staroegyptské náboženstvo bohov slnka. Tieto náboženstvá sa ukázali byť kľúčové pre prijatie zvonov po celom svete a mnohé z ich raných použití zvonov dodnes prežívajú v mnohých náboženských obradoch, tradíciách a verejných poverách, ktoré vytvorili ľudia sami.

Predtým, ako sa kresťanstvo vôbec objavilo, boli zvony vnímané ako hudobný nástroj bohov, ako položky, ktoré môžu niesť vôľu bohov po celej krajine, poskytovať mier, jasnú myseľ, vyháňať zlých duchov a poskytovať šťastie. V Biblii je mnoho zmienok o zvonoch, najmä v príbehoch o Mojžišovi, ktorý študoval kňazstvo v Egypte a znalosti o zvonoch a gongu preniesol do kresťanstva.

  • Zvonková klapka je vyrobená z rovnakého materiálu ako samotný zvon.
  • Zvonková klapka môže zasiahnuť zvon rýchlosťou až 1 000 kilometrov za hodinu a zvon vydrží túto silu tisíce rokov, ak je vytvorený správne.
  • Pracujúci zvon je stacionárny zvon, ktorý zvoní pomalým opakovaním.
  • Zvonkohry sú zostavené z minimálne 23 presne vyladených zvonov.
  • Veľká Británia má pre mnoho zvonov prezývku „Ringing Isle“.
  • Najväčší zvon, aký bol kedy vyrobený, bol Veľký zvon Dhammazediho. Vážil viac ako 300 ton, keď bol vytvorený, a nakoniec sa stratil pod riekou Barmou, keď sa ho portugalskí dobyvatelia pokúsili ukradnúť a roztaviť na delá.
  • Titanic mal tri zvony s priemerom od 2 do 23 palcov.


Bell war der Sohn von Clive Bell und Vanessa Bell, geborene Stephen, und der Neffe von Virginia Woolf. Bells Biografie seiner ber ühmten Tante, Virginia Woolfová: Životopis, zwei B ände (London: Hogarth Press, 1972), gewann nicht nur den „James Tait Black Memorial Prize “, sondern auch den 𠇭uff Cooper Prize “ und den „Yorkshire Post Book of the Year Award &# x201C. Er schrieb verschiedene B ࿌her ﲾr die Bloomsbury Group und Charleston Farmhouse. Er lehrte Kunstgeschichte am King's College, University of Durham (Newcastle University ab 1963) von 1952 bis 1959. Dann war er Professor an der Leeds University. 1964 lehrte er an der Oxford University und 1965 an der Hull University. Er war Professor f ür Kunstgeschichte und -theorie an der University of Sussex von 1967 bis 1975.

Bell war mit (Anne) Olivier Bell, geborene Popham, verheiratet. Réžia: Julian Bell, Maler und Kunstkritiker, Cressida Bell, eine bekannte Textildesignerin und Virginia Bell, die Autorin von Medzi Čechmi und Vyberané. Vidieť älterer Bruder war der Dichter Julian Bell. Die Schriftstellerin Angelica Garnett war seine Halbschwester. Nach dem Tod von Leonard Woolf (1880 �) erbten Quentin Bell und Angelica Garnett Virginia Woolfs literarisches Verm ์htnis.

Quentin Bell leží na kostole Friedhof von St. Peter ’s Church, West Firle, East Sussex.


Obsah

Tarantino sa narodil 27. marca 1963 v Knoxville v Tennessee ako jediné dieťa Connie McHughovej a ctižiadostivého herca Tonyho Tarantina, ktoré rodinu opustilo pred narodením syna. [2] [11] Jeho otec je talianskeho pôvodu a jeho matka má čerokejský a írsky pôvod. Bol čiastočne vymenovaný za Quint Asper, postavu Burta Reynoldsa v sérii CBS Gunsmoke. [12] Tarantinova matka sa zoznámila s jeho otcom počas cesty do Los Angeles, kde bol Tony študentom práva a rádoby zabávač. Po krátkom manželstve a rozvode Connie Tarantino opustila Los Angeles a presťahovala sa do Knoxville, kde žili jej rodičia. V roku 1966 sa Tarantino a jeho matka vrátili do Los Angeles. [13] [14]

Tarantinova matka sa krátko po príchode do Los Angeles vydala za hudobníka Curtisa Zastoupila a rodina sa presťahovala do Torrance, mesta v oblasti South Bay v Los Angeles. [15] [16] Zastoupil povzbudil Tarantinovu lásku k filmom a sprevádzal ho na mnohých filmových projekciách. Tarantinova matka mu umožnila vidieť filmy s obsahom pre dospelých, ako napr Telesné znalosti (1971) a Vyslobodenie (1972). Potom, čo sa jeho matka v roku 1973 rozviedla so Zastoupeným a dostala chybnú diagnózu Hodgkinovho lymfómu, [17] Tarantina poslali žiť k starým rodičom do Tennessee. [18] Zostal tam necelý rok, než sa vrátil do Kalifornie. [19]

Koncom 70. rokov 1988: Vzdelanie, prvé zamestnania a rané projekty Upraviť

Vo veku 14 rokov Tarantino napísal jedno zo svojich prvých diel, scenár s názvom Kapitán Peachfuzz a sardelský zbojník, podľa filmu Hala Needhama z roku 1977 Smokey a bandita v hlavnej úlohe s Burtom Reynoldsom. V lete po jeho 15. narodeninách Tarantina uzemnila jeho matka za krádež v obchode s románom Elmora Leonarda Prepínač od Kmartu. Bolo mu dovolené odísť iba na návštevu komunitného divadla Torrance, kde sa zúčastňoval takých hier ako Dva plus dva sexuje a Rómeo a Júlia. [17] Tarantino vo veku 15 rokov odišiel zo strednej školy Narbonne v Harbour City v Los Angeles. [20] [21] Potom pracoval ako uvádzač v kine pre dospelých v Torrance, nazývanom Pussycat Theater. Neskôr Tarantino navštevoval hodiny herectva v James Best Theatre Company, kde sa stretol s niekoľkými svojimi prípadnými spolupracovníkmi. [22] [23] Počas pobytu v James Best sa Tarantino stretol aj s Craigom Hamannom, s ktorým by v roku 1987 spolupracoval na produkcii svojho prvého filmu. [24] [25]

V priebehu osemdesiatych rokov minulého storočia mal Tarantino niekoľko zamestnaní. Strávil čas ako náborový pracovník v leteckom a kozmickom priemysle a päť rokov pracoval vo video obchode s videom v Manhattan Beach v Kalifornii. [26] [27] Herec Danny Strong popisuje Tarantina ako "takého filmového nadšenca. Mal toľko znalostí o filmoch, že by sa pokúsil prinútiť ľudí, aby sledovali skutočne skvelé filmy." [27] [a] Po stretnutí na hollywoodskej párty Lawrence Bender povzbudil Tarantina, aby napísal scenár. Jeho prvý pokus o scenár, ktorý opísal ako „akčný film o priamej exploatácii 70. rokov“, nebol nikdy zverejnený a krátko nato bol opustený. [29] V roku 1987 Tarantino bol spoluautorom a režisérom svojho prvého filmu, Narodeniny môjho najlepšieho priateľa (1987). Zostalo nedokončené, ale jeho scenár neskôr tvoril základ Pravá romantika. [30]

V roku 1986 bol Tarantino zamestnaný vo svojom prvom hollywoodskom zamestnaní a pracoval s Rogerom Avarym ako asistenti výroby na cvičnom videu Dolpha Lundgrena, Maximálny potenciál. [31] Nasledujúci rok hral Elvisov imitátor v „Sophiina svadba: časť 1“, epizóde vo štvrtej sezóne seriálu Zlaté dievčatá, ktorý bol odvysielaný 19. novembra 1988. [32] Tarantino v roku 2020 pripomenul, že plat, ktorý z tejto časti dostal, pomohol financovať Rezervné psy Odhadoval, že pôvodne dostal zaplatené asi 600 dolárov, ale keďže sa táto epizóda často opakovala, pretože bola zaradená do zostavy „best of.“, počas troch rokov dostal zvyšky asi 3 000 dolárov. [33]

Tarantino portréty vo väčšine svojich filmov. Jeho postava, ktorá väčšinu času strávila na obrazovke, bola Jimmie Dimmick Pulp Fiction (1994).

90. roky: Prelomová úprava

Tarantino dostal svoju prvú platenú spisovateľskú úlohu na začiatku 90. rokov, keď ho Robert Kurtzman najal, aby napísal scenár Od súmraku do úsvitu. [34] [35] [36]

V januári 1992 Tarantinov kriminálny thriller neo-noir Rezervné psy- ktorý napísal, režíroval a vystupoval ako pán Brown - bol uvedený na filmovom festivale Sundance. Bol to okamžitý hit, pretože film získal pozitívnu odozvu od kritikov. Dialógový film o lúpeži udal tón neskorším Tarantinovým filmom. Tarantino napísal scenár k filmu za tri a pol týždňa a Bender ho postúpil režisérovi Monte Hellmanovi. Hellman pomohol Tarantinovi zaistiť financovanie od Richarda N. Gladsteina v spoločnosti Live Entertainment (z ktorej sa neskôr stal Artisan, teraz známy ako Lionsgate). Harvey Keitel si prečítal scenár a taktiež prispel do rozpočtu, pričom zastával úlohu koproducenta a taktiež mal veľký podiel na obraze. [37]

Tarantinov scenár Pravá romantika film bol prepustený v roku 1993. Druhým scenárom, ktorý Tarantino predal, bol film Prírodní zabijaci, ktorý prepracovali Dave Veloz, Richard Rutowski a režisér Oliver Stone. Tarantinovi bol prisúdený príbeh a v rozhovore uviedol, že si želá film dobre, ale neskôr konečný film odmietol. [38] [39] [40] Film vyvolal nepriateľstvo a vydanie knihy „všetko“ Inštinkt zabijaka od Jane Hamsherovej - ktorá s Donom Murphym mala pôvodnú možnosť scenára a produkovala film - viedla k tomu, že Tarantino v októbri 1997 Murphyho fyzicky napadol v reštaurácii AGO vo West Hollywoode v Kalifornii. [41] Murphy následne podal 5 miliónov dolárov súdny spor proti Tarantinovi sa prípad skončil tým, že sudca nariadil Tarantinovi zaplatiť Murphymu 450 dolárov. [42] [43] Tarantino bol v oboch prípadoch tiež nekreditovaným scenáristom krvavý príliv (1995) a The Rock (1996). [44] [45]

Po úspechu Rezervné psy„Tarantina oslovil Hollywood a ponúkol množstvo projektov vrátane Rýchlosť (1994) a Muži v čiernom (1997), ale namiesto toho sa utiahol do Amsterdamu, kde pracoval na svojom scenári Pulp Fiction. [46]

Tarantino písal, režíroval a účinkoval v kriminálnom filme o čiernej komédii Pulp Fiction v roku 1994 zachoval estetizáciu násilia, ktorým je známy, ako aj svoje nelineárne dejové linky. Tarantino získal Cenu Akadémie za najlepší pôvodný scenár, o ktorú sa podelil s Rogerom Avarym, ktorý prispel k príbehu. Získal tiež nomináciu v kategórii najlepší režisér. Film získal ďalších päť nominácií, vrátane za najlepší film. Tarantino tiež získal Zlatú palmu za film na filmovom festivale v Cannes 1994. Film zarobil viac ako 200 miliónov dolárov [47] a získal si pozitívne recenzie. [48] ​​[49]

V roku 1995 sa Tarantino zúčastnil antologického filmu Štyri izbySpolupráca zahŕňala aj režisérov Roberta Rodrigueza, Allison Andersovej a Alexandra Rockwella. Tarantino režíroval a hral vo štvrtom segmente filmu „Muž z Hollywoodu“, ktorý je poctou filmu Alfred Hitchcock predstavuje epizóda „Muž z juhu“. Neskôr v roku sa opäť spojil s Rodriguezom s vedľajšou úlohou v Zúfalý, zatiaľ čo v roku 1996 Od súmraku do úsvitu Nakoniec bol prepustený s Rodriguezovou réžiou a Tarantinom v hlavných úlohách po boku Keitela, Georga Clooneyho a Juliette Lewis. Bol to jeho tretí celovečerný film Jackie Brownová (1997), adaptácia románu Elmora Leonarda Rumový punč. Pocta filmom o blaxploitácii si zahrala Pam Grier, ktorá v 70. rokoch minulého storočia hrala v mnohých filmoch tohto žánru. Získal pozitívne recenzie a bol nazvaný „comeback“ pre Grier a co-star Robert Forster. [50] Leonard uvažoval Jackie Brownová byť jeho obľúbeným z 26 rôznych filmových adaptácií jeho románov a poviedok. [51]

V roku 1998 Tarantino debutoval na Broadwayi ako amorálny psycho zabijak pri obnove hry z roku 1966. Počkajte do zotmenia, ktorá získala nepriaznivé recenzie od kritikov, ale jeho hviezdna sila zaistila takmer vypredanú produkciu na obmedzený, 16-týždňový Broadwayský beh. [52] V decembri 1999 bol Tarantino pripojený k filmovej adaptácii komiksu Marvel Železný muž pre New Line Cinema. Z projektu nič nebolo. [53] V priebehu 90. rokov mal Tarantino niekoľko menších hereckých rolí, medzi inými aj v rokoch Eddie Presley (1992), [54] Coriolisov efekt (1994), [55] SPI so mnou (1994), [56] [57] Niekto milovať (1994), [58] Celoamerické dievča (1995), Osud zapne rádio (1995), [59] Zúfalý (1995), [60] Od súmraku do úsvitu (1996) a Dievča 6 (1996). [61] Zahral si aj v Riaditeľské kreslo Stevena Spielberga, simulačná videohra, ktorá používa vopred vygenerované filmové klipy. [62]

2000s: Následný úspech Upraviť

Tarantino plánoval začať pracovať na Hanební majstri, ako to bolo predbežne nazvané, ale odložil na písanie a réžiu Kill Bill, vysoko štylizovaný „film pomsty“ v kinematografických tradíciách Wuxia (Čínske bojové umenia), Jidaigeki (Japonské dobové kino), Spaghetti Western a taliansky horor. Pôvodne bol naplánovaný na jedno uvedenie do kín, ale jeho 4-hodinová prevádzková doba prinútila Tarantina rozdeliť ho na dva filmy. Zväzok 1 bol prepustený na konci roku 2003 a Zväzok 2 vyšlo v roku 2004. Vychádzalo to z postavy s názvom Nevesta a zápletky, ktorú on a ona Kill Bill Vedúca herečka Uma Thurman sa vyvinula počas výroby Pulp Fiction.

V rokoch 2002 až 2004 stvárnil Tarantino zloducha McKenasa Coleho v televíznom seriáli ABC Prezývka. [63] V roku 2002, počas rokovaní s Lucy Liu o Kill Bill, títo dvaja pomohli vytvoriť maďarský športový dokument Fury slobody. [64] Keď Tarantina oslovili kvôli dokumentu o zápase Krv vo vode, povedal: „Toto je najlepší príbeh, aký som kedy povedal. Rád by som sa zapojil“. [64]

V roku 2004 sa Tarantino zúčastnil filmového festivalu v Cannes 2004, kde pôsobil ako predseda poroty. [65] Hoci Kill Bill nesúťažil, Vol. 2 mal večerné premietanie a bol tiež premietaný ráno posledného dňa v pôvodnej 3-hodinovej verzii plus, pričom na úplné premietanie sa zúčastnil samotný Tarantino. Tarantino bol ďalej uznávaný ako „špeciálny hosťujúci režisér“ vo filme Roberta Rodrigueza z roku 2005 Mesto hriechuza réžiu automobilovej sekvencie s Clive Owenom a Beniciom del Toro. [66]

V máji 2005 Tarantino je spoluautorom a režisérom filmu „Grave Danger“, piateho finále seriálu CSI: Vyšetrovanie miesta činu. Za túto epizódu bol Tarantino nominovaný na Cenu Primetime Emmy za vynikajúcu réžiu za dramatický seriál na 57. ročníku udeľovania cien Emmy. [67] Ďalší Tarantinov filmový projekt bol Grindhouse, ktorý spolu s Rodriguezom režíroval. Premiéra v kinách 6. apríla 2007, Tarantinov príspevok k filmu Grindhouse projekt mal názov Dôkaz o úmrtí. Začalo sa to ako prevzatie slasherových filmov zo 70. rokov 20. storočia [68], ale s vývojom projektu sa dramaticky vyvíjal. [69] Predaj v pokladni bol nízky, ale film získal väčšinou pozitívne recenzie. [70] [71]

Tarantinov film Hanební majstri, vydaný v roku 2009, je príbehom skupiny židovsko-amerických partizánskych vojakov vo nacistami okupovanom Francúzsku počas 2. svetovej vojny. Natáčanie sa začalo v októbri 2008. [72] Film sa otvoril 21. augusta 2009 a získal veľmi pozitívne recenzie [73] a dosiahol prvé miesto v kinách na celom svete. [74] Postupne sa stal Tarantinovým najlepšie zarábajúcim filmom, kým ho neprekonal Django Unchained o tri roky neskôr. [75] Za film získal Tarantino druhú nomináciu na Oscara za najlepšiu réžiu a Oscara za najlepší pôvodný scenár.

2010s: Etablovaný autorský editor

V roku 2011 sa začala výroba Django Unchained, film o pomste bývalého otroka na juhu USA v roku 1858. Film vychádzal z Tarantinovej túžby vytvoriť západný špagetový súbor na americkom hlbokom juhu. Tarantino označil navrhovaný štýl za „južanský“ [76] a uviedol, že chce „robiť filmy, ktoré sa zaoberajú hroznou minulosťou Ameriky, s otroctvom a podobne, ale robiť ich ako westernové špagety, nie ako veľkofilmy. Chcem ich robiť ako sú to žánrové filmy, ale zaoberajú sa všetkým, čím sa Amerika nikdy nezaoberala, pretože sa za to hanbí, a ostatné krajiny to skutočne neriešia, pretože necítia, že by na to mali právo “. [76] Film bol prepustený 25. decembra 2012. V rozhovore s Krishnanom Guru-Murthym na Channel 4 News Tarantino reagoval nahnevane, keď sa ho vo svetle streľby na základnej škole Sandy Hook pýtali na údajné prepojenie medzi filmom. násilia a násilia zo skutočného života, a informoval Guru-Murthyho, že „zatvára zadok“. [77] Tarantino ďalej novinárovi vzdoroval a povedal: "Odmietam tvoju otázku. Nie som tvoj otrok a ty nie si môj pán. Nemôžeš ma prinútiť tancovať na tvoju melódiu. Nie som opica." [78]

V novembri 2013 Tarantino povedal, že pracuje na novom filme a že to bude ďalší western. Vyhlásil, že to nebude pokračovanie Django. [79] 12. januára 2014 bolo odhalené, že film bude mať názov Osem nenávistných. Produkcia westernu by sa s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou začala v lete 2014, ale potom, čo v januári 2014 unikol scenár filmu, Tarantino zvažoval, že film upustí a namiesto toho vydá ako román. [80] [81] Uviedol, že scenár daroval niekoľkým dôveryhodným kolegom vrátane Brucea Derna, Tima Rotha a Michaela Madsena. [82] [83]

19. apríla 2014 Tarantino režíroval živé čítanie uniknutého scenára v Divadle United Artists Theatre v hoteli Ace Los Angeles. Podujatie zorganizovalo Film Independent v Múzeu umenia okresu Los Angeles v rámci Živé čítanie séria. [84] Tarantino vysvetlil, že si prečítajú prvý návrh scenára, a dodal, že píše dva nové návrhy s iným koncom. Medzi hercov, ktorí sa pripojili k Tarantinu, patrili Samuel L. Jackson, Kurt Russell, Amber Tamblyn, James Parks, Walton Goggins a prví traja herci, ktorí dostali scenár pred únikom, Bruce Dern, Tim Roth a Michael Madsen. [85] V októbri 2014 Jennifer Jason Leigh rokovala o úlohe ženskej úlohy vo filme. [86] Leigh, Channing Tatum a Demián Bichir sa k obsadeniu pripojili v novembri. [87]

Osem nenávistných bol prepustený 25. decembra 2015 ako prezentácia roadshow v kinách formátu 70 mm, pred uvedením v digitálnych kinách 30. decembra 2015. [88] Tarantino vo filme rozprával niekoľko scén. Upravil dve verzie filmu, jednu pre verziu roadshow a druhú pre všeobecné vydanie. Verzia roadshow trvá tri hodiny a dve minúty a zahŕňa predohru a prestávku. Po vzore veľkorozpočtových filmov 60. a začiatku 70. rokov je všeobecné vydanie o šesť minút kratšie a obsahuje alternatívne zábery niektorých scén. Tarantino uviedol, že všeobecný strih vydania bol vytvorený, pretože mal pocit, že niektoré zábery, ktoré natočil na 70 mm, nebudú na menších obrazovkách hrať dobre. [89] Film získal od kritikov väčšinou pozitívne recenzie so skóre 74% podľa agregátora recenzií Rotten Tomatoes. [90]

11. júla 2017 bolo oznámené, že ďalším Tarantinovým projektom bude film o vraždách Mansonovej rodiny. [91] Vo februári 2018 bolo oznámené, že názov filmu bude Tenkrát v Hollywoode, a že Leonardo DiCaprio bude hrať Ricka Daltona, fiktívnu hviezdu televíznych westernov, s Bradom Pittom ako Daltonovým dlhoročným kaskadérskym dvojníkom Cliffom Boothom. [92] Tarantino napísal scenár k filmu. Margot Robbie tiež hrala ako skutočná herečka Sharon Tate, zobrazená ako suseda Daltona od vedľa. Medzi podpornými hercami filmu boli Timothy Olyphant, [93] Kurt Russell, Michael Madsen a Al Pacino. [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] Natáčanie sa uskutočnilo v lete 2018. [99] V nadväznosti na obvinenia zo sexuálneho zneužívania Harveyho Weinsteina Tarantino natrvalo prerušil vzťahy so spoločnosťou The Weinstein Company a hľadal nového distribútora. po spolupráci s Weinsteinom počas celej jeho kariéry. Film mal prvú oficiálnu premiéru na filmovom festivale v Cannes 2019, kde sa súťažilo o Zlatú palmu. [100] Na festivale zaznamenal pozitívne ohlasy s pochvalou na DiCapria, Pitta a Robbieho, aj keď reakcie na koniec filmu boli rôzne. Zožalo to sedemminútový standing ovation, aj keď nevyhralo v žiadnej kategórii. Spoločnosť Sony Pictures distribuovala film, ktorý bol v kine uvedený 26. júla 2019. [95] [101]

Ako producent Edit

V posledných rokoch Tarantino využil svoju hollywoodsku silu na to, aby menším a zahraničným filmom venoval väčšiu pozornosť, ako by sa im inak mohlo dostať. Tieto filmy sú často označené ako „Uvádza Quentin Tarantino“ alebo „Quentin Tarantino predstavuje“. Prvá z týchto inscenácií bola v roku 2001 s hongkonským filmom o bojových umeniach Železná opica, ktorá v USA zarobila viac ako 14 miliónov dolárov, čo je sedemnásobok jej rozpočtu. V roku 2004 priniesol film Čínske bojové umenia Hrdina k brehom USA. Skončilo to tak, že sa číslo jedna otvorilo v pokladni a zarobilo 53,5 milióna dolárov. [102] V roku 2006 začala ďalšia produkcia „Quentin Tarantino predstavuje“, Ubytovňa, otvorená na prvom mieste v pokladni s otváracím víkendom 20,1 milióna dolárov. [103] Predstavil rok 2006 Ochrancaa je producentom filmu z roku 2007 Hostel: časť II. V roku 2008 vyrobil helmu Larryho Bishopa Pekelná jazda, motorkársky film o pomste.

Okrem toho v roku 1995 Tarantino založil s Miramaxom Rolling Thunder Pictures, aby vydal alebo znova vydal niekoľko nezávislých a zahraničných funkcií. Do roku 1997 spoločnosť Miramax zavrela spoločnosť kvôli zlým tržbám. [104] Spoločnosť Rolling Thunder Pictures uviedla na trh nasledujúce filmy: Chungking Express (1994, r. Wong Kar-wai), Sestry Switchblade (1975, r. Jack Hill), Sonatine (1993, r. Takeshi Kitano), Logo Hard Core (1996, r. Bruce McDonald), Mocný pekinský muž (1977, r. Ho Meng Hua), Detroit 9000 (1973, r. Arthur Marks), The Beyond (1981, r. Lucio Fulci), a Zrazený (1996, r. Reb Braddock).

Neprodukované a potenciálne filmy Upraviť

Na začiatku svojej kariéry Tarantino zvažoval sfilmovanie adaptácií komiksov. Na začiatku deväťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia bol čerstvý z jeho kritického úspechu Rezervné psy, Tarantino prišiel do Constantin Productions so scenárom filmu Silver Surfer, ale bol odmietnutý. [105] Po vydaní albumu Rezervné psyTarantino zvažoval výrobu filmovej adaptácie Luka Cagea, ale rozhodol sa urobiť Pulp Fiction namiesto. [106] Koncom 90. rokov mu bolo ponúknuté, aby režíroval filmovú adaptáciu Zelenej lampióny ešte predtým, ako existoval scenár, ale Tarantino ponuku odmietol. [107] V roku 1999 bol Quentin Tarantino spojený aj so živou akciou Železný muž film, ako režisér a spisovateľ. [108]

Predtým Hanební majstri, Tarantino zvažoval výrobu Bratia Vega. Vo filme by si Michael Madsen a John Travolta zopakovali svoje úlohy Vica (Mr. Blonde) z r. Rezervné psy a Vincenta z Pulp Fiction. V roku 2007 kvôli veku hercov a úmrtiu oboch postáv na obrazovke tvrdil, že film - ktorý mal v úmysle nazvať Dvojlôžková V Vega—Je to „teraz trochu nepravdepodobné“. [109]

V roku 2009 v rozhovore pre taliansku televíziu potom, čo sa ho pýtali na úspech týchto dvoch Kill Bill Tarantino povedal: „Na ten tretí ste sa ma nepýtali“ a naznačil, že bude robiť tretinu. Kill Bill film so slovami: „Nevesta bude opäť bojovať!“ [110] Later that year, at the Morelia International Film Festival, [111] Tarantino announced that he would like to film Kill Bill: Volume 3. He explained that he wanted ten years to pass between The Bride's last conflict, in order to give her and her daughter a period of peace. [112] In a 2012 interview for the website We Got This Covered, Tarantino said that a third Kill Bill film would "probably not" happen.

He also said that he would not be directing a new James Bond film, saying that he was only interested in directing Casino Royale at one point. [113] Sometime in that same year he was asked about the Kill Bill films, he has stated that he was a huge fan of Simon Pegg, and sought to adapt the Len Deighton novels into a film starring Pegg, Kate Winslet, Michael Caine, and Anthony Hopkins. [114] [115] [116] [117]

In a late 2012 interview with the online magazine The Root, Tarantino clarified his remarks and described his next film as being the final entry in a "Django-Inglourious Basterds" trilogy called Killer Crow. The film will depict a group of World War II-era black troops who have "been fucked over by the American military and kind of go apeshit. They basically – the way Lt. Aldo Raine (Brad Pitt) and the Basterds are having an 'Apache resistance' – [the] black troops go on an Apache warpath and kill a bunch of white soldiers and white officers on a military base and are just making a warpath to Switzerland." [118]

A long-running rumor in the industry is that Tarantino is interested in filming a new version of Bret Easton Ellis's 1985 novel Less Than Zero. His friend Roger Avary adapted The Rules of Attraction, another novel by Ellis, to film in 2002, and since both he and Tarantino like the works by Ellis, Tarantino has been eyeing the possibility of adapting Less Than Zero. Ellis confirmed in a 2010 interview that Tarantino had been "trying to get Fox to let him remake it". [119] In 2012, when asked whether Less Than Zero would be remade, Ellis once again confirmed that Tarantino "has shown interest" in adapting the story. [120] At the San Diego Comic-Con in 2014, Tarantino revealed he is contemplating a possible science-fiction film. [121] In November 2014, Tarantino said he would retire from films after directing his tenth film. [122]

In November 2017, Tarantino and J. J. Abrams pitched an idea for a Star Trek film with Abrams assembling a writers room. If both approve of the script, Tarantino will direct and Abrams will produce the film. [123] Mark L. Smith was hired to write the screenplay the same month. [124] In January 2020, Tarantino stated the film might be made, but he would not direct it. [125]

In June 2019, Tarantino had picked Jerrod Carmichael to co-write a film adaptation based on the Django/Zorro crossover comic book series. [126]

Early influences Edit

In the 2012 Sight & Sound directors' poll, Tarantino listed his top 12 films: Apokalypsa teraz, The Bad News Bears, Carrie, Dazed and Confused, Veľký únik, His Girl Friday, Čeľuste, Pretty Maids All in a Row, Rolling Thunder, Sorcerer, Taxikár a Dobrý zlý a škaredý, with the last being his favorite. [127] Sergio Leone was a profound influence. [128] In 2009, he named Kinji Fukasaku's violent action film Battle Royale as his favorite film released since he became a director in 1992. [129] In 2020, Tarantino named David Fincher's film The Social Network his favorite movie of the 2010s. [130] He is also a fan of the 1981 film Vyfúknuť, directed by Brian De Palma, which led to his casting of John Travolta in Pulp Fiction. [131] Tarantino praised Mel Gibson's 2006 film Apocalypto, saying, "I think it's a masterpiece. It was perhaps the best film of that year." [132] Tarantino has also labeled Rio Bravo as another one of his favorites numerous times. He listed the Australian suspense film Cestné hry (1981) as another favorite film. [133] Tarantino is also a noted fan of Elaine May's 1987 film Ištar, despite its reputation as being a notorious box-office flop and one of the worst films ever made. [134]

In August 2007, while teaching in a four-hour film course during the 9th Cinemanila International Film Festival in Manila, Tarantino cited Filipino directors Cirio H. Santiago, Eddie Romero and Gerardo de León as personal icons from the 1970s. [135] He referred to De Leon's "soul-shattering, life-extinguishing" movies on vampires and female bondage, citing in particular Women in Cages "It is just harsh, harsh, harsh", he said, and described the final shot as one of "devastating despair". [135] Upon his arrival in the Philippines, Tarantino was quoted in the local newspaper as saying, "I'm a big fan of RP [Republic of the Philippines] cinema." [136]

Style Edit

Tarantino's films often feature graphic violence, a tendency which has sometimes been criticized. [137] [138] [139] Reservoir Dogs was initially denied United Kingdom certification because of his use of torture as entertainment. [140] Tarantino has frequently defended his use of violence, saying that "violence is so good. It affects audiences in a big way". [141] Tarantino has stated that the celebrated animation-action sequence in Kill Bill: Volume 1 was inspired by the use of 2D animated sequences in actor Kamal Haasan's Tamil film Aalavandhan. [142] [143] He often blends esthetics elements, in tribute to his favorite films and filmmakers. V Kill Bill, he melds comic strip formulas and esthetics within a live action film sequence, in some cases by the literal use of cartoon or anime images. [144] [145]

Tarantino has also occasionally used a nonlinear story structure in his films, most notably with Pulp Fiction. He has also used the style in Reservoir Dogs, Kill Billa The Hateful Eight. [146] [147] Tarantino's script for True Romance was originally told in a nonlinear style, before director Tony Scott decided to use a more linear approach. [148] [149] Critics have since referred to the use of this shifting timeline in films as the "Tarantino Effect". [150] Actor Steve Buscemi has described Tarantino's novel style of filmmaking as "bursting with energy" and "focused". [151] According to Tarantino, a hallmark of all his movies is that there is a different sense of humor in each one, which prompts the viewer to laugh at scenes that are not funny. [152] However, he insists that his films are dramas, not comedies. [153]

He also creates his own products and brands that he uses in his films to varying degrees. [154] His own fictional brands, including "Acuña Boys Tex-Mex Food", "Big Kahuna Burger", "G.O. Juice", "Jack Rabbit Slim's", "K-Billy", "Red Apple cigarettes", "Tenku Brand Beer" and "Teriyaki Donut", replace the use of product placement, sometimes to a humorous extent. [155] [145] Tarantino is also known for his choice of music in his films, [156] including soundtracks that often use songs from the 1960s and 70s. [157] [158] [159] In 2011, he was recognized at the 16th Critics' Choice Awards with the inaugural Music+Film Award. [160] [161]

On the biopic genre, Tarantino has said that he has "no respect" for biopics, saying that they "are just big excuses for actors to win Oscars. . Even the most interesting person – if you are telling their life from beginning to end, it's going to be a fucking boring movie." [162] However, in an interview with Charlie Rose, he said, "There is one story that I could be interested in, but it would probably be one of the last movies I [ever make] . My favorite hero in American history is John Brown. He's my favorite American who ever lived. He basically single-handedly started the road to end slavery and . he killed people to do it. He decided, 'If we start spilling white blood, then they're going to start getting the idea.'" [163]

Tarantino has stated in many interviews that his writing process is like writing a novel before formatting it into a script, saying that this creates the blueprint of the film and makes the film feel like literature. About his writing process he told website The Talks, "[My] head is a sponge. I listen to what everyone says, I watch little idiosyncratic behavior, people tell me a joke and I remember it. People tell me an interesting story in their life and I remember it. . when I go and write my new characters, my pen is like an antenna, it gets that information, and all of a sudden these characters come out more or less fully formed. I don't write their dialogue, I get them talking to each other." [162] In 2013, a survey of seven academics was carried out to discover which filmmakers had been referenced the most in essays and dissertations on film that had been marked in the previous five years. It revealed that Tarantino was the most-studied director in the United Kingdom, ahead of Christopher Nolan, Alfred Hitchcock, Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg. [164]

Gun violence Edit

Tarantino has stated that he does not believe that violence in movies inspires acts of violence in real life. [165] After the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, NRA Chief Executive Wayne LaPierre accused him of being insensitive to the event. [166] In an interview with Terry Gross, Tarantino expressed "annoyance" at the suggestion that there is a link between the two, saying, "I think it's disrespectful to [the] memory of those who died to talk about movies . Obviously the issue is gun control and mental health." [167] Soon after, in response to a Hollywood PSA video titled "Demand a Plan", which featured celebrities rallying for gun control legislation, [168] a pro-gun group used scenes from Tarantino's film Django Unchained to label celebrities as "hypocrites" for appearing in violent movies. [169]

Racial slurs Edit

In 1997, Spike Lee questioned Tarantino's use of racial slurs in his films, especially the word "nigger" and "gooks", particularly in Pulp Fiction a Jackie Brownová. [170] In a Rozmanitosť interview discussing Jackie Brownová, Lee said, "I'm not against the word . And some people speak that way, But Quentin is infatuated with that word. I want Quentin to know that all African Americans do not think that word is trendy or slick."". [171] Tarantino responded on The Charlie Rose Show by stating:

As a writer, I demand the right to write any character in the world that I want to write. I demand the right to be them, I demand the right to think them and I demand the right to tell the truth as I see they are, all right? And to say that I can't do that because I'm white, but the Hughes brothers can do that because they're black, that is racist. That is the heart of racism, all right. And I do not accept that . That is how a segment of the black community that lives in Compton, lives in Inglewood, where Jackie Brownová takes place, that lives in Carson, that is how they talk. I'm telling the truth. It would not be questioned if I was black, and I resent the question because I'm white. I have the right to tell the truth. I do not have the right to lie. [172]

In addition, Tarantino retaliated on The Howard Stern Show by stating that Lee would have to "stand on a chair to kiss [his] ass". [173] Samuel L. Jackson, who has appeared in both directors' films, defended Tarantino's use of the word. At the Berlin Film Festival, where Jackie Brownová was being screened, Jackson responded to Lee's criticism by saying, "I don't think the word is offensive in the context of this film . Black artists think they are the only ones allowed to use the word. Well, that's bull. Jackie Brownová is a wonderful homage to black exploitation films. This is a good film, and Spike hasn't made one of those in a few years." [174] Tarantino has defended his use of the word, arguing that black audiences have an appreciation of his blaxploitation-influenced films that eludes some of his critics, and indeed, that Jackie Brownová was primarily made for "black audiences". [175]

Django Unchained was the subject of controversy because of its use of racial slurs and depiction of slavery. Reviewers have defended the use of the language by pointing out the historic context of race and slavery in America. [176] [177] Lee, in an interview with Vibe magazine, said that he would not see the film, explaining, "All I'm going to say is that it's disrespectful to my ancestors. That's just me . I'm not speaking on behalf of anybody else." [178] Lee later tweeted, "American Slavery Was Not A Sergio Leone Spaghetti Western. It Was A Holocaust. My Ancestors Are Slaves. Stolen From Africa. I Will Honor Them." [179] Writing in the Los Angeles Times, journalist Erin Aubry Kaplan noted the difference between Tarantino's Jackie Brownová a Django Unchained: "It is an institution whose horrors need no exaggerating, yet Django does exactly that, either to enlighten or entertain. A white director slinging around the n-word in a homage to '70s blaxploitation à la Jackie Brownová is one thing, but the same director turning the savageness of slavery into pulp fiction is quite another". [180]

Harvey Weinstein Edit

On October 18, 2017, Tarantino gave an interview discussing sexual harassment and assault allegations against producer Harvey Weinstein. Tarantino said his girlfriend Mira Sorvino told him in the mid-1990s about her experience with Weinstein. Tarantino confronted Weinstein at the time and received an apology. [181] Tarantino said: "What I did was marginalize the incidents, I knew enough to do more than I did." [181]

On February 3, 2018, in an interview with The New York Times, Pulp Fiction a Kill Bill actress Uma Thurman said Harvey Weinstein sexually assaulted her, which she reported to Tarantino. Tarantino said he confronted Weinstein, as he had previously when Weinstein made advances on his former partner, demanded he apologize and banned him from contact with Thurman for the rest of production. [182]

Kill Bill car crash Edit

Uma Thurman was in a serious car accident on the set of Kill Bill because Tarantino had insisted she perform her own driving stunts. [183] Tarantino said he did not force her to do the stunt. [182] [184] Though Thurman found the incident "negligent to the point of criminality," she did not believe Tarantino had "malicious intent". [185]

Bruce Lee Edit

In 2019, Shannon Lee, daughter of Bruce Lee, called his depiction in Tenkrát v Hollywoode disheartening and inaccurate. [186] Tarantino said: "Bruce Lee was kind of an arrogant guy. The way he was talking, I didn't just make a lot of that up." [187]

As a child, Tarantino was a fan of the early eras of Marvel Comics, particularly those that were written by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, and is an admitted fan of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. [188]

In a December 2009 interview with John Scott Lewinski of Digital Spy, Tarantino said that he plans to retire from filmmaking when he is 60, in order to focus on writing novels and film literature. He is skeptical of the film industry going digital, saying, "If it actually gets to the place where you can't show 35 mm film in theaters anymore and everything is digital projection, I won't even make it to 60." [189] He has also stated that he has a plan, although "not etched in stone", to retire after making his tenth movie: "If I get to the 10th, do a good job and don't screw it up, well that sounds like a good way to end the old career." [190]

In February 2010, Tarantino bought the New Beverly Cinema in Los Angeles. Tarantino allowed the previous owners to continue operating the theater, but stated he would make occasional programming suggestions. He was quoted as saying: "As long as I'm alive, and as long as I'm rich, the New Beverly will be there, showing films shot on 35 mm." [191] Starting in 2014, Tarantino took a more active role in programming film screenings at the New Beverly, showing his own films as well as prints from his personal collection. [192]

As a youth, Tarantino attended an Evangelical church, describing himself as "baptized, born again and everything inbetween." Tarantino said this was an act of rebellion against his Roman Catholic mother, as she had encouraged what might usually be considered more conventional forms of rebellion, such as his interests in comic books and horror films. Throughout the 1990s, Tarantino was evasive about his specific religion despite making it clear that he believed in God, who he credited with giving him his writing ability. [193] Beginning around the 2000s and 2010s, Tarantino continued ascribing his talents to gifts from God although he started expressing uncertainty regarding God's existence. "I think I was born Catholic, but I was never practiced," said Tarantino. "As time has gone on, as I've become a man and made my way further as an adult, I'm not sure how much any of that I believe in. I don't really know if I believe in God, especially not in this Santa Claus character that people seemed to have conjured up." [194] [195] By June 2021, Tarantino had declared himself an atheist. [196]

On June 30, 2017, Tarantino became engaged to Israeli singer Daniella Pick, daughter of musician Svika Pick. They met when Tarantino was in Israel to promote Inglourious Basterds in 2009. [197] They married on November 28, 2018, in a Reform Jewish ceremony in their Beverly Hills Home. [198] [199] On August 21, 2019, it was announced that the couple were expecting their first child. [200] He lives with his wife in Ramat Aviv Gimel, Israel. [201] On February 22, 2020, their son, Leo (named after his wife's maternal grandfather), [202] was born in Israel. [203]

Tarantino has built up an informal "repertory company" of actors who have appeared in many roles in his films. [227] [228] Most notable of these is Samuel L. Jackson, who has appeared in six films directed by Tarantino and a seventh written by him, True Romance. [229] [230] Other frequent collaborators include Uma Thurman, who has been featured in three films and whom Tarantino has described as his "muse" Michael Madsen, James Parks and Tim Roth, who respectively appear in five, four and three films. Roth appeared in Four Rooms, an anthology film where Tarantino directed the final segment, as well as having filmed a scene for Tenkrát v Hollywoode before it was cut for time and Zoë Bell, who has acted or performed stunts in seven Tarantino films. [230] [231] [232] Other actors who have appeared in several films by Tarantino include Michael Bacall, Michael Bowen, Bruce Dern, Harvey Keitel, Michael Parks, Kurt Russell and Craig Stark, who have appeared in three films each. Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt have each appeared in two Tarantino films, the second of which, Tenkrát v Hollywoode, they appear in together. [233] [234] Like Jackson, Pitt also appeared in the Tarantino-penned True Romance.

Several actors have been nominated for Academy Awards for their roles in Tarantino's films. Samuel L. Jackson, Uma Thurman and John Travolta were each nominated for Pulp Fiction (for Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Actor, respectively) Robert Forster was nominated for Best Supporting Actor for his role in Jackie Brownová and Jennifer Jason Leigh earned a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in The Hateful Eight. Christoph Waltz won Best Supporting Actor in 2010 for Inglourious Basterds and again in 2013 for Django Unchained. Leonardo DiCaprio and Brad Pitt were nominated for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor, respectively, for their roles in Tenkrát v Hollywoode with Pitt winning.

Editor Sally Menke, who worked on all Tarantino films until her death in 2010, was described by Tarantino in 2007 as "hands down my number one collaborator". [235] [236] Since her death, Fred Raskin has taken over editing duties.

Tarantino has also had a long partnership and collaboration with Lawrence Bender, who produced all his directorial efforts from Reservoir Dogs cez Inglourious Basterds, except for Death Proof. Robert Richardson has been director of photography for all films from Kill Bill: Volume 1 cez Tenkrát v Hollywoode, except for Death Proof.

Actor/actress Reservoir Dogs
(1992)
Pulp Fiction (1994) Jackie Brownová (1997) Kill Bill: Volume 1
(2003)
Kill Bill: Volume 2
(2004)
Death Proof (2007) Inglourious Basterds
(2009)
Django Unchained (2012) The Hateful Eight
(2015)
Tenkrát v Hollywoode
(2019)
Zoë Bell
Samuel L. Jackson
Michael Madsen
James Parks
Michael Parks
Tim Roth
Harvey Keitel
Vivica A. Fox
David Steen
Uma Thurman
Michael Bowen
Jonathan Loughran
Ambrosia Kelley
Michael Bacall
Omar Doom
Kurt Russell
Bruce Dern
Lee Horsley
Craig Stark
Steve Buscemi
Sid Haig
Daryl Hannah
Julie Dreyfus
Bo Svenson
Perla Haney-Jardine
Eli Roth
Laura Cayouette
Monica Staggs
Jacky Ido
Gordon Liu
Brad Pitt
Christoph Waltz
Walton Goggins
Dana Gourrier
Leonardo DiCaprio
James Remar

Throughout his career, Tarantino and his films have frequently received nominations for major awards, including for seven Academy Awards, seven BAFTA Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, two Directors Guild of America Awards, and sixteen Saturn Awards. He has won the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay twice, for Pulp Fiction a Django Unchained. He has four times been nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, winning once for Pulp Fiction in 1994. In addition to his recognition for writing and directing films, Tarantino has received five Grammy Award nominations and a Primetime Emmy Award nomination.

In 2005, Tarantino was awarded the honorary Icon of the Decade at the 10th Empire Awards. [237] He has earned lifetime achievement awards from two organizations in 2007, from Cinemanila, [238] and from the Rome Film Festival in 2012. [239] In 2011, Tarantino was awarded the Honorary César by the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma. [240]


A skilled mountaineer, Bell almost met her end on a slope

She started climbing years earlier during a family holiday in La Grave, France, in 1897. She tackled greater heights with her 1899 ascents of the Meije and Les Ecrins in the French region of the Alps. Bell continued to challenge herself with other peaks in the Swiss Alps the following year. Becoming one of the leading female climbers of her day, she helped tackle some of the virgin peaks of the Engelhorner range. One of these previously uncharted peaks was named Gertrudspitze in her honor.  

Bell, with her guides, tried to climb another mountain, the Finsteraarhorn, in 1902, when a blizzard hit. She spent more than 50 hours on a rope on the mountain’s northeast side before she was able to make it back to a local village with her guides. The experience left Bell with frostbitten hands and feet, but it did not end her love of climbing. She went on to scale the Matterhorn in 1904. She described her experience in one of her letters, according to A Woman in Arabia: The Writings of the Queen of the Desert. “It was beautiful climbing, never seriously difficult, but never easy, and most of the time on a great steep face which was splendid to go upon.”


M.S.Ed in History and Philosophy of Education

In this program you’ll have the opportunity for growth in fundamental abilities that contribute clarity of direction and purpose to the professional tasks of educators.

Inquire into the historical roots of educational policies and problems and explore the relationship between educational philosophies and the practices and policies of educational and other social institutions.

This 36 credit-hour master's degree is often a step toward the doctorate.

Starting SemesterKonečný termín
Fall Mar 1
Jar Nov 1
Leto Mar 1
International students are encouraged to apply early to allow extra time for their materials to arrive.

In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Graduate Studies Office will accept unofficial transcripts and self-reported test scores for admission reviews. Any admission made with these documents would be conditioned on receipt of official documents, which should be provided as soon as possible.


Lifestyle and beliefs

Artists and friends in a fake plane. From left to right: Unknown, David Garnett, Vanessa Bell, Oliver Strachey, Dora Carrington, Duncan Grant, and Barbara Bagenal

Above all, the personalities that counted as far as the inhabitants of Gordon Square and Charleston were concerned were their own: what Virginia had to say about Lytton, whether Duncan was sleeping with Vanessa or Maynard, and whether Roger and Clive knew or cared.

Charles Derwent, The Independent v nedeľu, 7 November, 1999

The Bloomsbury Group are often better known for their unconventional personalities and lifestyles than for their art. What was it about them that outraged people at the time and still fascinates people today?

They came from wealthy backgrounds, which had given them social advantages and self-confidence. But they were linked by a spirit of rebellion against what they saw as the unnecessary conventions, restraints and double standards of their parents&rsquo generation. They wanted freedom to develop their own ideas and lifestyles. They were politically liberal. They also had liberal ideas about sex, which meant there were often complicated relationships and affairs between the various members of the Bloomsbury circle.

Charleston farmhouse

The social life of the Bloomsbury circle revolved around the various houses members and their friends owned. Charleston farmhouse was Vanessa Bell&rsquos house in the Sussex countryside. She moved there during the First World War with her children and her close friend the artist Duncan Grant. David &lsquoBunny&rsquo Garnett (another Bloomsbury Group member and Duncan&rsquos current lover) also moved in with them as did a nurse, a housemaid, a cook &ndash and Duncan&rsquos dog Henry.

This is how Vanessa described Charleston in a letter to her friend Roger Fry:

It&rsquos most lovely, very solid & simple, with flat walls in that lovely mixture of brick & flint that they use about here, & perfectly flat windows in the walls & wonderful tiled roofs. The pond is most beautiful with a willow at one side & a stone &ndash or flint &ndash wall edging it all round the garden part, & a little lawn sloping down to it, with formal bushes on it. Then there&rsquos a small orchard & the walled garden&hellip& another lawn or bit of field railed in beyond. There&rsquos a wall of trees &ndash one single line of elms all round two sides which shelters us from west winds.

Letter from Vanessa Bell to Roger Fry

Although a big house, it was quite run down. The garden was overgrown and inside there was no telephone, central heating or electricity. But it was in a beautiful setting, on a gentle slope overlooking stunning countryside.

Duncan and Vanessa chose rooms for their studios and immediately started to decorate the house. Walls, fireplaces, door panels and furniture were all decorated in the style of their paintings. Fabrics and ceramics designed by the Omega Workshops, (a design company started by Bloomsbury member Roger Fry), were included in the overall design.

Photograph of interior decorations at Charleston farmhouse
© Tate

Photograph of interior decorations at Charleston farmhouse
© Tate

House parties were common at Charleston and it was often full of guests. They were captured on camera by Vanessa Bell, a keen photographer.

Frederick Ashton, Lydia Lopokova, Duncan Grant and Billy Chappell drinking a toast in the garden at Charleston
© Tate

Photograph of Duncan Grant in costume as a Spanish dancer, at Charleston
© Tate

Photograph of Clive Bell and Lytton Strachey in the garden at Charleston
© Tate

Duncan Grant and Angelica Bell in the garden of Charleston farmhouse in Sussex, 1927
© Tate

Group picnic at High and Over, Sussex
© Tate

In 1916, the artist Dora Carrington was invited to stay at Charleston. She described the experience in a letter to her friend, giving us a fascinating peep inside the house and the lifestyle of its inhabitants.

It was indeed a romantic house buried deep down in the highest & most wild downs I have ever seen. Duncan Grant was there, who is much the nicest of them & Strachey with his yellow face & beard. Fuj! I used to walk along the ridge of the downs every morning early when the sun was just rising. And the wind of the top was more fierce & powerful than anything you could imagain [sic]. It roared in my ears. And I had to lie flat down on the wet grass in order to look at the land below & the sea beyond Newhaven which shone all silver.
We lived in the kitchen & cooked & ate there. All the time I felt one of them would suddenly turn into mother and say &lsquowhat brekfast [sic] at 10.30! Do use the proper butter knife!&rsquo &ndash But no. Everything was behind time. Everyone devoid of table manners. & the vaguest cooking insued [sic] &ndash Duncan earnestly putting remains of milk pudding into the stockpot! They were astounded because I knew what part of the leak [sic] to cook! What poseurs they are really-

Letter from Dora Carrington to Christine Nash, n.d. [Dec. 1916]


Family [ edit ]

He was married to Anne Olivier Bell (née Popham). They had three children: Julian Bell, an artist and muralist Cressida Bell, a notable textile designer and Virginia Nicholson, Γ] the writer of Charleston: A Bloomsbury House and Garden, Among the Bohemians a Singled Out.

His older brother was the poet Julian Heward Bell who died in the Spanish Civil War in 1937, aged 29. The writer and artist Angelica Garnett was his half-sister. He is a nephew of Virginia Woolf.


National Baseball Hall of Fame

In 1974, Cool Papa Bell’s place in baseball history was sealed when he became the fifth player from the Negro Leagues inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown. Holding no grudges, Bell graciously appeared at the annual induction ceremonies year after year and received ovations from the fans. His obituary in the New York Times noted that when told about his election, Bell said it was his biggest honor but not his biggest thrill. That, he said, “was when they opened the door in the majors to black players.”

He died March 7, 1991, at age 87 in St. Louis, just a few weeks after Clarabelle’s death. Two months later he was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame, which honors individuals from the St. Louis area who made major national contributions to America’s cultural heritage. A bronze sculpture of Bell can be found inside the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum in Kansas City, Missouri.

Bell was posthumously inducted into the Mississippi Sports Hall of Fame and Museum in 1995. The road leading to the museum off Lakeland Drive in Jackson is named Cool Papa Bell Drive. In 1999, author Willie Morris and Buck O’Neil, representing the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum, dedicated a historical marker honoring Bell in Starkville. The marker is located at the Little League baseball park to show that there was once a little boy from Starkville, Mississippi, who ran so fast he made it all the way to the Hall of Fame.

William “Brother” Rogers is the assistant director for programs, Stennis Center for Public Service in Starkville.


The Liberty Bell


Tradition tells of a chime that changed the world on July 8, 1776, with the Liberty Bell ringing out from the tower of Independence Hall summoning the citizens of Philadelphia to hear the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence by Colonel John Nixon.

The Pennsylvania Assembly ordered the Bell in 1751 to commemorate the 50-year anniversary of William Penn's 1701 Charter of Privileges, Pennsylvania's original Constitution. It speaks of the rights and freedoms valued by people the world over. Particularly forward thinking were Penn's ideas on religious freedom, his liberal stance on Native American rights, and his inclusion of citizens in enacting laws.

The Liberty Bell gained iconic importance when abolitionists in their efforts to put an end to slavery throughout America adopted it as a symbol.

As the Bell was created to commemorate the golden anniversary of Penn's Charter, the quotation "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof," from Leviticus 25:10, was particularly apt. For the line in the Bible immediately preceding "proclaim liberty" is, "And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year." What better way to pay homage to Penn and hallow the 50th year than with a bell proclaiming liberty?

Also inscribed on the Bell is the quotation, "By Order of the Assembly of the Province of Pensylvania for the State House in Philada." Note that the spelling of "Pennsylvania" was not at that time universally adopted. In fact, in the original Constitution, the name of the state is also spelled "Pensylvania." If you get a chance to visit the second floor of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, take a moment to look at the original maps on the wall. They, too, have the state name spelled "Pensylvania" (and the Atlantic Ocean called by the name of that day, "The Western Ocean"). The choice of the quotation was made by Quaker Isaac Norris, speaker of the Assembly.

Centered on the front of the Bell are the words, "Pass and Stow / Philada / MDCCLIII." We'll get to Pass and Stow in a bit.

The Crack

There is widespread disagreement about when the first crack appeared on the Bell. Hair-line cracks on bells were bored out to prevent expansion. However, it is agreed that the final expansion of the crack which rendered the Bell unringable was on Washington's Birthday in 1846.

The Philadelphia Public Ledger takes up the story in its February 26, 1846 publication:

The Bell as Icon

The Bell achieved its iconic status when abolitionists adopted the Bell as a symbol for the movement. It was first used in this association as a frontispiece to an 1837 edition of Sloboda, published by the New York Anti-Slavery Society.

It was, in fact, the abolitionists who gave it the name "Liberty Bell," in reference to its inscription. It was previously called simply the "State House bell."

In retrospect, it is a remarkably apt metaphor for a country literally cracked and freedom fissured for its black inhabitants. The line following "proclaim liberty" is, "It shall be a jubilee unto you and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." The Abolitionists understood this passage to mean that the Bible demanded all slaves and prisoners be freed every 50 years.

William Lloyd Garrison's anti-slavery publication Osloboditeľ reprinted a Boston abolitionist pamphlet containing a poem about the Bell, entitled, The Liberty Bell, which represents the first documented use of the name, "Liberty Bell."

The Bell and the Declaration of Independence

In 1847, George Lippard wrote a fictional story for The Saturday Currier which told of an elderly bellman waiting in the State House steeple for the word that Congress had declared Independence. The story continues that privately he began to doubt Congress's resolve. Suddenly the bellman's grandson, who was eavesdropping on the doors of Congress, yelled to him, "Ring, Grandfather! Ring!"

This story so captured the imagination of people throughout the land that the Liberty Bell was forever associated with the Declaration of Independence.

The truth is that the steeple was in bad condition and historians today highly doubt that the Bell actually rang in 1776. However, its association with the Declaration of Independence was fixed in the collective mythology.

Bell as Symbol

After the divisive Civil War, Americans sought a symbol of unity. The flag became one such symbol, and the Liberty Bell another. To help heal the wounds of the war, the Liberty Bell would travel across the country.

Starting in the 1880s, the Bell traveled to cities throughout the land "proclaiming liberty" and inspiring the cause of freedom. We have prepared a photo essay of its 1915 journey to the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.

A replica of the Liberty Bell, forged in 1915, was used to promote women's suffrage. It traveled the country with its clapper chained to its side, silent until women won the right to vote. On September 25, 1920, it was brought to Independence Hall and rung in ceremonies celebrating the ratification of the 19th amendment.

To this day, oppressed groups come to Philadelphia to give voice to their plight, at the Liberty Bell, proclaiming their call for liberty.

History of the Bell


On November 1, 1751, a letter was sent to Robert Charles, the Colonial Agent of the Province of Pennsylvania who was working in London. Signed by Isaac Norris, Thomas Leech, and Edward Warner, it represented the desires of the Assembly to purchase a bell for the State House (now Independence Hall) steeple. The bell was ordered from Whitechapel Foundry, with instructions to inscribe on it the passage from Leviticus.

The bell arrived in Philadelphia on September 1, 1752, but was not hung until March 10, 1753, on which day Isaac Norris wrote, "I had the mortification to hear that it was cracked by a stroke of the clapper without any other viollence [sic] as it was hung up to try the sound."

The cause of the break is thought to have been attributable either to flaws in its casting or, as they thought at the time, to its being too brittle.

Two Philadelphia foundry workers named John Pass and John Stow were given the cracked bell to be melted down and recast. They added an ounce and a half of copper to a pound of the old bell in an attempt to make the new bell less brittle. For their labors they charged slightly over 36 Pounds.

The new bell was raised in the belfry on March 29, 1753. "Upon trial, it seems that they have added too much copper. They were so teased with the witticisms of the town that they will very soon make a second essay," wrote Isaac Norris to London agent Robert Charles. Apparently nobody was now pleased with the tone of the bell.

Pass and Stow indeed tried again. They broke up the bell and recast it. On June 11, 1753, the New York Mercury reported, "Last Week was raised and fix'd in the Statehouse Steeple, the new great Bell, cast here by Pass and Stow, weighing 2080 lbs."

In November, Norris wrote to Robert Charles that he was still displeased with the bell and requested that Whitechapel cast a new one.

Upon the arrival of the new bell from England, it was agreed that it sounded no better than the Pass and Stow bell. So the "Liberty Bell" remained where it was in the steeple, and the new Whitechapel bell was placed in the cupola on the State House roof and attached to the clock to sound the hours.

The Liberty Bell was rung to call the Assembly together and to summon people together for special announcements and events. The Liberty Bell tolled frequently. Among the more historically important occasions, it tolled when Benjamin Franklin was sent to England to address Colonial grievances, it tolled when King George III ascended to the throne in 1761, and it tolled to call together the people of Philadelphia to discuss the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765.


In 1772 a petition was sent to the Assembly stating that the people in the vicinity of the State House were "incommoded and distressed" by the constant "ringing of the great Bell in the steeple."

But, tradition holds, it continued tolling for the First Continental Congress in 1774, the Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775 and its most resonant tolling was on July 8, 1776, when it summoned the citizenry for the reading of the Declaration of Independence produced by the Second Continental Congress. However, the steeple was in bad condition and historians today doubt the likelihood of the story.

In October 1777, the British occupied Philadelphia. Weeks earlier all bells, including the Liberty Bell, were removed from the city. It was well understood that, if left, they would likely be melted down and used for cannon. The Liberty Bell was removed from the city and hidden in the floorboards of the Zion Reformed Church in Allentown, Pennsylvania, which you can still visit today.

Throughout the period from 1790 to 1800, when Philadelphia was the nation's capital, uses of the Bell included calling the state legislature into session, summoning voters to hand in their ballots at the State House window, and tolling to commemorate Washington's birthday and celebrate the Fourth of July.

The Bell Today

On every Fourth of July, at 2pm Eastern time, children who are descendants of Declaration signers symbolically tap the Liberty Bell 13 times while bells across the nation also ring 13 times in honor of the patriots from the original 13 states.

Each year, the bell is gently tapped in honor of Martin Luther King Day. The ceremony began in 1986 at request of Dr. King's widow, Coretta Scott King.


Pozri si video: Quentin and his Birdbox Orchestra featuring his 18th Century hand teacher (Január 2023).

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