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Ben Milam

Ben Milam


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Ben Milam sa narodil v Kentucky 20. októbra 1788. Bol členom amerických síl vo vojne v roku 1812. Po vojne sa zapojil do prepravy múky z Mississippi do New Orleans. Neskôr obchodoval s Comanche na rieke Colorado v Texase.

Milam sa pridal k dobrovoľníkom počas revolúcie v Texase, ktorá sa začala 2. októbra 1835. Stephen Austin poveril Milama vedením skautskej spoločnosti počas pokusov odstrániť generála Perfecta de Cos zo svojej základne v San Antoniu de Bexar.

Krátko po vzbure začali Texasania obliehať San Antonio de Bexar. 7. decembra skupina dobrovoľníkov pod vedením Milama zaútočila na mesto. Ben Milam bol zabitý neskôr v ten deň. Po smrti Milama prevzal vedenie povstalcov James Bowie. Po ďalších dvoch dňoch bojov generál Perfecto de Cos vyzval, aby sa uskutočnili rokovania. Cos ponúkol povstalcom kontrolu nad San Antoniom de Bexar výmenou za to, že jeho mužom bude umožnený návrat do Mexika.


Hotel Ben Milam

Ďalšia historická budova v Houstone padá k búračke. Hotel Ben Milam bol zbúraný a na jeho mieste sa stavajú byty.

Klimatizácia prichádza do Houstonu

Tento 10 -poschodový hotel postavený v roku 1928 oproti stanici Union Station pomenovaný po texaskom hrdinovi Benovi Milamovi bol prvým hotelom v Houstone, ktorý bol v roku 1932 kompletne klimatizovaný.

Spoločnosť York Ice Machinery Corporation nainštalovala celoročný systém, ktorý reguloval teploty a vlhkosť a tiež čistil vzduch. Cena bola ohromujúca éra depresie 75 000,00 dolárov. Houston, Texas je v súčasnosti považovaný za naj klimatizovanejšie mesto na svete.

Najnovšie v hoteli Ben Milam je, že bude čoskoro strhnutý. Ako skoro, nie som si istý. Budova stále chátra. Odkedy boli tieto obrázky nasnímané, je nápis „Hotel Ben Milam“ úplne pokrytý grafitmi gangov.

Texas Avenue je široká 100 stôp. Bol navrhnutý tak, aby umožňoval 14 -tim rožkom prechádzať z rohu na roh počas jazdy dobytka smerom ku koľajam na stanici Union Station Veľa aktivít a zábavy v deň hry. Títo chlapci založili pred Southwestern Grill skvelé miesto na jedenie. sa nachádza na rohu ulíc Texas a Austin.

Minute Maid Field (tmavočervená tehla) bola otvorená v roku 2000 a je domovom baseballového tímu Astros. Štadión je klimatizovaný a má zaťahovaciu strechu pre baseballových puristov, ktorí si myslia, že sa musia zapotiť, aby si mohli užiť hru.

Veľa herného dňa a zábavy. Títo chlapci vytvorili pred Southwestern Grill skvelé miesto na jedenie. Nachádza sa na rohu ulice Texas a Austin.


Zabudnutý hrdina: Ben Milam

Ben bol pochovaný tam, kde spadol, na zadnom dvore domu de Veramendi. Tam ležali jeho kosti mnoho rokov. Nakoniec sa stratil z rovnováhy a jeho pozostatky boli príslušným slobodomurárskym rituálom odstránené do rohu protestantského cintorína na mieste, kde sa dnes nachádza San Antonio a park Milam. Na hrobe bol vápencový pamätník s nápisom, jednoducho MILAM. Predpokladalo sa, že žiadna ďalšia identifikácia nebude nikdy potrebná.

Keď bol cintorín zasvätený parku Milam, bolo rozhodnuté, že namiesto toho, aby bol Ben odsunutý do rohu, mal by odpočívať v strede parku. Bol opäť bezstarostný a ešte viac s príslušným slobodomurárskym rituálom a znova pochovaný v strede parku, ktorý niesol jeho meno.

V roku 1936 bola vtedy zle zvetraná značka vápenca nahradená žulovým pamätníkom, ktorý ste videli, ak ste niekedy navštívili park Milam. V priebehu rokov sa štvrť Milam Park a#8217s zmenila na takú, do ktorej by ste neradi vstupovali po tme. San Antonio sa už dlhší čas pokúša oživiť oblasť a zastaviť jej rozklad a práve pred niekoľkými rokmi San Antonio a mexické sesterské mesto Cuernavaca ponúklo darovanie altánku podobného altánku, ktorý by postavili v strede. parku Milam v rámci omladenia. Okamžite boli vyjadrené námietky – “Nemôžete ’t tam vložiť obálku – to ’ll byť priamo na vrchole hrobu Ben Milama ’s! ”

Zdá sa, že k svojim hrdinom z Texasu, dokonca aj k svojim takmer zabudnutým hrdinom, pristupujeme s väčším rešpektom, ako sa niektorí Európania správajú k svojim. Hovorí sa o hrobe zakladateľa škótskej presbyteriánskej cirkvi –, hoci nikto nevie s istotou –, že bude pod čiernou strechou glasgowského parkoviska. V skutočnosti bol starý Ben v San Antoniu tak dôkladne ignorovaný alebo zabudnutý, že San Antonio oficiálne netušil, kde ležia jeho kosti.

Zosnulý doktor I. Waynne Cox spolu s doktorkou Anne Foxovou, obaja z antropologického/archeologického oddelenia UTSA, začali skúmať Benove posmrtné perambulácie. Iste, našli dlho zabudnuté novinové správy o odstránení a druhom opätovnom pochovaní zabudnutého hrdinu “ v strede parku Milam. ” Tí, ktorí namietali proti obalu kapely, povedali “Viz – povedali sme vám to! Ben ’s right under the monument. ” Napriek tomu nikto nevedel s istotou. Aj keď tam bol hrob, nikto skutočne nevedel, či to bol Ben Milam ’s.

Bola zorganizovaná vykopávka, aby sa zistilo, či sa pod pamätníkom skutočne nachádzal hrob, a ak áno, aby sa zistilo, – ak je to možné – koho hrob to bol. V tom druhom nikto naozaj nečakal veľký úspech. Bol tam hrob, presne tam, kde odporcovia tvrdili, že bude. Archeológovia našli v zemi obrys starej drevenej rakvy, ktorá sa vtedy natoľko zhoršila, že jedinou jej stopou bolo zafarbenie pôdy. Vnútri obrysu boli značne zhoršené pozostatky belošského muža vo veku 45 až 50 rokov, ktorý mal v živote asi 5 𔄁 ″. Mohol by to byť Ben? Všetky Benove popisy ho priviedli na výšku#8220 stôp alebo o niečo lepšie. ” V skutočnosti väčšina takýchto popisov bola prehnaná. Máme účty ‘ očitého svedka ’, ktoré opisujú Daniela Booneho ako ‘ na šesť stôp ’, keď stál iba asi 5 𔄀 ″ David Crockett ako ‘a obr muža ’, keď stál iba asi 5 𔄁 &# 8243 a Sam Houston ako „šesť stôp šesť“#8217, keď v skutočnosti stál 6 𔃼 ″.

Na vyslovenie áno alebo nie boli potrebné ďalšie dôkazy. Lebka bola veľmi rozbitá a veľká časť tvárovej štruktúry bola preč, ale zostalo toho dosť na to, aby sa lebka mohla zrekonštruovať. V ľavej zadnej časti lebky bol veľký otvor, ktorý forenzný anatóm identifikoval ako výstupnú ranu spôsobenú guľkou kalibru približne 0,65. Podľa svedkov bol Ben postrelený z prednej strany hlavy sprava do mexickej pušky, čo malo pamätať, že malo kaliber 0,64 a 8212 a loptička mu prešla hlavou. ” pochybujte, že pozostatky nájdené uprostred parku Milam sú nálezmi z Texasu ’ veľkých – ale takmer zabudnutým –hero, Ben Milam.


Zabudnutý hrdina: Ben Milam

Teraz sa vráťme k roztočom, k tomu osudnému večeru v roku 1835, keď Ben Milam plakal “Kto ’ll nasledoval starého Bena Milama do Bejára? ” Abraham Zuber – koho otec tam bol, keď sa to stalo – povedal jeho otec Ben v hline nakreslil čiarou, ktorú mal v ruke, čiaru pre tých, ktorí ho nasledujú a prekročia. Mnoho historikov špekulovalo od roku – na základe úplného nedostatku akýchkoľvek známych prežívajúcich svedkov, ktorí svedčia o opaku, a nad skutočnosťou, že jeden očitý svedok, ktorý má prežiť a svedčiť o dianí vo vnútri Alamo, o tom nehovoril až do rokov po skutočnosti, že Benova čiara v špine, nakreslená palicou, bola v priebehu rokov transmogrifikovaná na čiaru v prachu na nádvorí Alama, ktorú nakreslil Buck Travis mečom. Buckova línia v prachu určite robí lepší príbeh a z toho, čo vieme o osobnosti Travisa, je to presne to, čo by urobil, keby si to myslel.

Potom je tu otázka#8211 Prečo by mal Ben držať palicu v ruke tesne pred bitkou? Puška alebo mušketa, určite. Nôž, tomahawk, meč, dokonca aj sekera - a všetky tieto položky by boli rozumné. Ale jednoduchá palica? Prečo? Možno to nebola jednoduchá palica. ’ Kosti nôh kostry objavenej v parku Milam boli dobre zachované. Pri vyšetrení kompetentnými lekármi boli odhodlaní preukázať oslabujúci artritický stav. Podľa forenzných dôkazov muž pochovaný pod pamätníkom Bena Milama v Milam Parku pravdepodobne nemohol vôbec pokrčiť pravé koleno a ohýbanie ľavého kolena by bolo prinajlepšom bolestivé. Ben Milam preto nemá veľkú otázku o identite pôvodného držiteľa tejto kostry a bol ochromený artritídou. Ledva sa mohol pohybovať. Určite chodil s palicou, ak nie s barlou. Bez jedného alebo druhého by pravdepodobne vôbec nemohol kráčať.

Spor ‘ line-in-the-dust ’ nie je teraz vyriešený ani pravdepodobne nebude. Travis ’ line je takou súčasťou príbehu Alamo, že nikdy nezomrie. Máme však vysvetlenie pre palicu, s ktorou Ben nakreslil čiaru. Bola to vychádzková palica – a vždy ju nosil, pretože bez nej nemohol chodiť. Kosti Milama boli na UTSA niekoľko mesiacov, skúmali ich, aby zistili, čo mnohé môžu kosti povedať o ľuďoch, ktorí ich kedysi vlastnili, diéte, chorobe, návykoch a schopnostiach. Akonáhle UTSA dokončila štúdiu, Smithsonian požiadal o krátkodobé zapožičanie kostí na štúdium. Ben urobil to, čo žiadny iný hrdina z Texaskej revolúcie ešte nikdy neurobil a#8211 nastúpil do jetlinera a odletel do Washingtonu a späť. Samozrejme, že – alebo jeho kosti – ho uložil do špeciálne navrhnutého kufra, ale stále to bolo prvé.

Milam Park bol zrekonštruovaný. Ben bol naposledy pochovaný a#8211 dúfajme, že bude mať úplný slobodomurársky rituál a vyznamenania, spolu s čestnou strážou tých Texanovcov, ktorí mu vďačia za veľkú časť svojej histórie. Ale – ako dôkladne sa zabudlo na Bena Milama? Je tu pomenovaná župa, jeho meno nesie ulica v Seguine, existujú školy s názvom Milam a#8217 a potom samozrejme park Milam v San Antoniu.

V najkomplexnejšom, ak nie najmonumentálnejšom románe, aký bol kedy o Texase napísaný, James Michener a TEXAS, je Ben Milam jediným významným účastníkom Texaskej revolúcie, o ktorom sa nikdy nehovorí. Je načase, aby sme si začali pamätať starého Bena. Ak by nemal ’t vystúpil a zakričal “Kto ’ll nasledoval starého Bena Milama do Bejaru? ” my Texania by sme možno vôbec nemali štát.


História Benjamina Milama (asi 1746 - 1781)

Benjamin Milam bol tretím synom Thomasa Milama a narodil sa v Culpeper County v oblasti Dominion a kolónia Panny Márie v roku 1746 alebo skôr. Asi v roku 1772 sa Benjamin oženil s Elizabeth Jacksonovou, dcérou Jarvisa a Heleny Jacksonovej, v Bedford County. Predtým sa jeho brat John Milam oženil s jej sestrou Annou Jacksonovou okolo roku 1768.

Od roku 1735 do roku 1761 som prečítal tisíce strán kníh poriadku krajského súdu v Orange County a Culpepere, potom, keď Thomas Milam odstránil, knihy z poriadku krajského súdu v Bedforde v rokoch 1758 až 1793 hľadali Milamsa. Nenašiel som žiadne súdne príkazy na Benjamina Milama, čo je vzhľadom na číslo, ktoré som našiel na Thomasa Milama a jeho ďalších synov, mimoriadne. Okrem toho pre neho neexistujú žiadne pozemkové prieskumy, záruky, granty, patenty ani listiny. Dôvodom je, že Benjamin zdieľal pôdu a pracoval ako píliar a tesár po boku svojho brata Mosesa Milama.

Dokazuje to Mojžišov súdny proces proti Davidovi Wrightovi v marci 1773, v ktorom sa spomína Benjamin, a pozemková listina od Mojžiša Milama po Benjaminovej manželke Elizabeth Milamovej po jeho predčasnej smrti. Tento list je prepísaný nižšie na konci tohto článku. Všetky tieto body podrobne rozoberám v mojej kapitole o Mojžišovi Milamovi, ktorú si môžete prečítať tu (odkaz).

Nedostatok informácií o Benjaminovi je veľkým sklamaním. V Culpeperskej župe je však platný zatykač z roku 1760, ktorého svedkom bol Benjamin Milam svojim podpisom. Jeho otec Thomas Milam pridelil zatykač na Johna Greena - na budúceho plukovníka Johna Greena, o ktorom sa bude diskutovať nižšie.


Podpis Benjamina Millama na zatykač Thomasa Milama na budúcnosť plk John Green, 26. augusta 1760

Bližšie informácie o tejto žiadosti o záruku a zúčastnených osobách získate kliknutím sem (odkaz).

Milícia okresu Bedford

V tejto histórii som sa spoliehal na žiadosti o dôchodok pre revolučnú vojnu mužov, ktorí spomínajú Benjamina alebo Williama Milama a ktorí bojovali v bitke o súdny dom v Guilforde vo Virgin Rifles plukovníka Charlesa Lyncha. Môžete kliknúť tučným písmom na ktorékoľvek z týchto mien a prepojiť sa tak na prepis ich žiadosti o dôchodok: John Hale, John Holly, Thomas Brown, Charles Lambert, Nataniel Roundtree a čestné vyhlásenie Johna Gaddieho.

V roku 1774 kontinentálny kongres zriadil v každom kraji Bezpečnostné výbory, aby organizovali svoje milície a presadzovali bojkot obchodu s Anglickom. John Hale pripomenul, že na jeseň roku 1778 „boli občania Bedfordu, ktorí vo všeobecnosti podliehali vojenským povinnostiam, zaradení do tried, číslovaní od jedna do desať a čísla boli vylosovaní. Deklarant si spomína, že jeho číslo bolo sedem. & Quot

Župné župy boli určené skôr na domácu obranu než na pravidelnú službu, a preto im chýbali výcvikové a bojové skúsenosti kontinentálnej armády, do ktorej muži narukovali na 18 mesiacov. Virgínsky zákon prijatý v máji 1780 vyžadoval, aby každý kraj, ktorého milícia ešte nebola angažovaná, prijal alebo povolal jedného domobranca z každých pätnástich nad 18 rokov, aby slúžil v kontinentálnej armáde do konca roku 1781. [517] Spoločenstvo uznalo, že občania boli poľnohospodári a museli pravidelne vykonávať práce počas celého roka, takže služba milície bola obmedzená na tri mesiace. Keď bola situácia akútna, ako keď britský generál Cornwallis vstúpil na Pannu vo februári 1781, obecne sa ozvali všetci zdatní muži z okresov, ktoré boli najbližšie k invázii, ako bol Bedford. Vzhľadom na to, že Briti v júni 1781 siahali až na západ do Charlottesville, a kvôli návrhom odporcov a dezertérov, Virgínske zhromaždenie skrátilo návrh domobrany na dva mesiace a zvýšilo im plat. Niekoľko žiadostí o dôchodok naznačuje, že niektorí muži boli opakovane draftovaní po návrate do Bedford County iba na niekoľko dní alebo týždňov, ako to bolo v prípade Rush Milama.

John Holly ktorý bol osem mesiacov v kampani v Boonesborough s poručíkom Johnom Milamom, pripomenul: „V roku 1781, keď Gen’l. Cornwallis prichádzal do Virgínie a prišiel k rieke Dan <14 FEB>. Všetci muži, ktorí boli schopní nosiť zbraň v Bedforde, a polovica mužov v Botetourte <& quotBody-tot & quot; boli zaradení do služby. & Quot

Tu si môžete prečítať prepis celého jeho vyhlásenia (odkaz).

Thomas Brown prerozprávaný:

& quot. niekedy vo februári 1781 bol odvedený do služby USA z Bedford County vo Virgínii, kde potom býval a slúžil tri mesiace na turné. Pochodoval pod kapitánom Charlesom Gwatkinom, Poručík William Millam, podporučík Thomas Logwood. Pochodoval z uvedeného okresu Pittsylvania County cez Staunton a Dan Rivers vo Virgínii do Guilford Court House v N. C., kde sa pripojil k armáde pod velením Gen’l. Greene. Jeho terénni dôstojníci, ako si naňho pamätá, boli Plukovník Charles Lynch a majora Johna Callawaya . Bol v bitke, ktorá sa odohrala 15. marca 1781 medzi americkou armádou pod vedením Gen’la. Greene a Briti pod vedením Cornwallisa. Bitka sa začala kanonádou. Briti si po bitke udržali pozíciu. Americká armáda sa vracia k Problémovým železiarňam asi 9 míľ od Guilfordu, ale britská armáda o niekoľko dní neskôr ustúpila. & quot

& quot; Pamätá si, ako videl pravidelné a domobranecké pluky a roty s jednotkami, ale aké boli počty a kto ich rozkázal, si teraz nevie spomenúť, okrem kapitánov Mesiac a Helm, ktorý vo svojom pluku velil miličným spoločnostiam a obaja boli zabití v bitke pri Guilforde. Videl strieľaného kapitána Moona a nesený z poľa. Bol prepustený niekedy v apríli 1781 kapitán Gwatkin. & quot

Tu si môžete prečítať prepis celého jeho vyhlásenia (odkaz).

Charles Lambert mal podobné spomienky:

„V roku 1781 bol povolaný do spoločnosti milícií kapitána Charlesa Gwatkina v grófstve Bedford v štáte Virgínia v deň a mesiac, na ktorý si nemôže spomenúť, a pochodoval cez Pittsylvania County Virgínia do súdneho domu v Guilforde v Severnej Karolíne. Nepožiadal žiadneho kapitána, s ktorým pochodoval Poručík Millam & podporučík Logwood, a pripojil sa k pluku, ktorému velil Plukovník Charles Lynch & amp; Major John Callaway & amp; pripojiť sa k brigáde generála Roberta Lawsona. Tu opäť okrem povinností súkromníka vykonával povinnosti štvrťmajstra k pluku, až kým sa nepripojili k hlavnému vojsku. V čase bitky o Guilford <15. marca> dostal príkaz prevziať batožinu z Guilfordu do Problémových železiarní. Jeho služba skončila tri mesiace pred bitkou o Guilford, ale zostal v službe, kým Briti neustúpili a bol prepustený v Ramsaurových mlynoch. Čas, na ktorý si nemôže spomenúť - ale myslí si, že to bolo na jar 1781 plukovníkom Lynchom. & Quot

Tu si môžete prečítať prepis celého jeho vyhlásenia (odkaz).

POZNÁMKA: Zoznam desiatich kapitánov, ktorí velili spoločnostiam pod velením plukovníka Lyncha na súde v Guilforde, neobsahuje kapitána Charlesa Gwatkinsa, takže Lambertova pamäť bola správna.

John Gaddie urobil relevantné čestné vyhlásenie na podporu žiadosti o dôchodok Jeremiáša Dawsona:

& quot; John Gaddie ďalej uvádza, že vie, že povedal, že Jeremiah Dawson sa dobrovoľne prihlásil a vstúpil do služieb USA v revolučnej vojne pod kapitánom Charlesom Wadkinsom a William Milam, prvý poručíkt, v pluku plukovníka Charlesa Lincha, uvádza, že jeho najlepšia spomienka v súčasnosti je, že Nathaniel Rountree, John Canady , Benjamin Milam, George Gaddie, George Rucker a John Reynolds išli do služby súčasne s Jeremiahom Dawsonom a že všetci slúžili šesťmesačnú cestu v uvedenej vojne. & quot

Tu si môžete prečítať prepis celého jeho vyhlásenia (odkaz).

Nathaniel Roundtree ktorého John Gaddie spomenutý bol s Benjaminom a Williamom Milamom, ktoré rozprávali:

& quothe vrátil sa domov do Bedford County. zostal doma asi tri alebo päť dní a bol znova draftovaný a bol zaradený pod kapitána Charlesa Watkinsa Plukovník sa volal Charles Lynch, John Calloway Major, všetci z okresu Bedford a potom pochodoval z Bedfordu do Severnej Karolíny a znova sa pripojil k generálovi Greenemu neďaleko visutej skaly Ford na rieke Haw. V rôznych časoch sa s Britmi zúčastnilo niekoľko šarvátok. Posila, ktorá prichádzala ku generálovi Greeneovi, bola dlho pripevnená, potom Greene zaútočil na Britov v Guilforde. Britom velil Wallace udržal pole a Greene pochodoval k železiarňam vzdialeným 18 míľ od Guilfordu. & quot

Tu si môžete prečítať prepis celého jeho vyhlásenia (odkaz).

Predohra k bitke o Guilford Súdny dom

Aby sme pochopili dôležitosť tejto bitky, musíme si pozrieť nedávnu históriu bitiek. Briti položili krok do Charlestonu, SC, v apríli 1780 padol 12. mája, čím sa Britom poskytlo hlavné mesto a prístav na zásobovanie. Krátko pred touto porážkou kontinentálny kongres nariadil generálmajorovi Horatiovi Gatesovi, nevedomému víťazovi v Saratoge, aby išiel na juh stabilizovať situáciu. Prišiel do Deep River koncom júla, aby našiel silu

3700, väčšinou milícií s dvoma brigádami kontinentálnej línie (900 vojakov) zo Severnej Karolíny. Vojaci boli zle vybavení a zle pripravení. Keď sa britský generálporučík Charles Cornwallis dozvedel o pláne, viedol svoju bojovú armádu

2300 z Charlestonu smerom na Camden, jeho najdôležitejšiu vnútrozemskú posádku a sklad zásob. Jazdeckí skauti opačných síl na seba narazili uprostred noci 16. augusta, niekoľko kilometrov severne od Camdenu. [537]

Camden

Ráno 16. augusta 1780 boli sily usporiadané tak, že Cornwallisove najsilnejšie prápory boli na jeho pravom boku proti Gatesovi a nevyskúšali milície Severnej Karolíny a Virgínie. Až na jednu spoločnosť americké milície utiekli takmer bez výstrelu. Preto bolo ponechané kontinentálnym štamgastom bojovať v bitke. Nebola to žiadna súťaž, pretože Briti otočili pravý bok doľava, aby obklopili Američanov. Gates, ktorý strávil celú bitku v tyle, utiekol z poľa a nechal obklopiť svojho smrteľne zraneného druhého veliteľa, generála baróna Jeana de Kalba. Americké straty sa odhadovali na 250 mŕtvych a 800 zranených alebo zajatých. Mnoho milícií sa nikdy nevrátilo do radov a hovorí sa, že generál Gates neprestal jazdiť, kým nedosiahol Charlotte. Porážka v Camdene bola najhoršou stratou, ktorú americké sily utrpeli počas celej vojny. Najdôležitejším výstupom bolo, že bol vymenovaný generál Nathaniel Greene, ktorý nahradil nešťastných Gatesov. [538]

Víťazstvo v Camdene povzbudilo britských vojakov a posilnilo morálku lojalistov, konzervatívcov na Karolíne. Generál Cornwallis dospel k záveru, že najlepší spôsob, ako zabezpečiť Južnú Karolínu, je 1) zničiť vrecká odporu milícií, ktoré obťažujú jeho zásobovacie vlaky, a 2) v konečnom dôsledku zničiť zvyšky americkej armády v Severnej Karolíne, ktorá ju používala ako svätyňu zaútočiť na juh. Poslal majora Patricka Fergusona silou

1100 konzervatívcov na zabezpečenie severnej časti Južnej Karolíny. V septembri došlo k prestrelkám v Musgrove's Mill a Cane Creek. Ferguson poslal ultimátum „ľuďom na horu“ z „Modrého hrebeňa Karolín“, aby „odmietli svoj odpor voči britským zbraniam“ alebo sa vyhrážal, že „rozdrví svoj odpad z krajiny ohňom a mečom“. [536] Milície horárov číslovanie

Zišlo sa 1000 ľudí, aby odolali Fergusonovi na hornej rieke Catawba, NC. Ferguson sa dozvedel o miliciach, ktoré ho sledovali, a otočil svoju silu v hákovom manévri, aby postavil svojich mužov do obranného postoja na hrebeni známom ako Kráľova hora. Animáciu bitky o Camden si môžete pozrieť tu (odkaz). [539]

Kráľova hora

Obe sily sa stretli asi 15:00 7. októbra 1780. Patrioti boli rozdelení do deviatich spoločností, ktoré sa zo všetkých strán približovali k plošine 1000 stôp. Hoci toryovci obsadili vyvýšené miesto, Američania mali kryt medzi veľkými stromami a balvanmi, aby sa skryli medzi výstrelmi zo zbraní. Vzhľadom na terén sa štýl boja zmenil na to, čo Američania najlepšie poznali z boja s Indiánmi. Hromadné útvary s hromadnými salvami z muškiet, ktoré Briti bežne používali, boli zbytočné. Ferguson nariadil niekoľko brutálnych bajonetových nábojov dole na úbočí, ale nakoniec boli jeho lojalistické sily obklopené na plošine v stále menšom priestore. Fergusona zabil požiar muškety a jeho muži sa potom vzdali. [540]

Každý muž, ktorý bojoval na Kráľovej hore, bol Američan okrem majora Fergusona! Toryovských obetí bolo 244 zabitých, 163 zranených a

650 zajatých. Patrioti mali 29 mŕtvych a 58 zranených. Strata na King's Mountain ohromila generála Cornwallisa a spôsobila, že na niekoľko mesiacov opustil inváziu do Severnej Karolíny. To novému americkému veliteľovi generálovi Nathanaelovi Greeneovi poskytlo čas, ktorý potreboval na reorganizáciu svojej armády. Okrem toho generál George Washington presunul do južnej kampane kľúčových veliteľov a kontinentálne jednotky.

Hannah's Cowpens

Začiatkom januára 1781 generálporučíka Cornwallisa znepokojilo, že brigádny generál Daniel Morgan bude hliadkovať v západnej časti Južnej Karolíny a zhromažďovať vlastencov. Prikázal svojmu agresívnemu veliteľovi kavalérie, podplukovníkovi Banastrovi Tarletonovi, aby ho našiel a porazil. V 15. našiel Morgana. Cornwallis odviedol časť svojej hlavnej armády na severozápad, aby pomohol Tarletonovi, ktorý potom mal

1100 mužov vrátane troch rôt ľahkej pechoty, dvoch jazdeckých rôt a dvoch kanónov. Morgan sa dozvedel o Tarletonovom prístupe a vybral si bojové pole vhodné pre jeho bojový plán. Vybral si Hannah's Cowpens južne od hraníc so Severnou Karolínou. [541]

1 000 vojakov vrátane 237 kontinentálov z Marylandu a Delaware, 80 jazdcov,

500 milicionárov a 200 horských strelcov. Americkí velitelia sa z porážky v Camdene a víťazstva na Kráľovej hore poučili, ako lepšie nasadiť svoje milície a strelcov. Morgan zorganizoval prednú líniu asi 150 milicionárskych strelcov a nariadil im vystreliť dve rany - zamerané predovšetkým na britských dôstojníkov - a potom sa vrátil do druhej línie pod plukovníkom Andrewom Pickensom, ktorý sa nachádzal 150 yardov vzadu. Druhá línia spočívala na návrší a mala by pozostávať z 300 milícií, ktoré boli tiež poučené, aby sa po dvoch dobrých výstreloch stiahli späť do tretej línie. Posledná línia bola o 150 yardov ďalej vzadu, ešte vyvýšenejšia, ktorej velil podplukovník John Howard a mala 450 mužov väčšinou kontinentálov. Táto formácia bola na oboch stranách sprevádzaná 100 ostrými strelcami z Virginie. Jazda plukovníka Williama Washingtona bola umiestnená vzadu ako rezerva. [542]

Podplukovník Banastre Tarleton pretlačil svoju armádu cez chladnú noc, ktorá prišla 17:30 o 6:30 hod. O siedmej ráno Briti zaútočili na hromadnú formáciu. Morganova prvá línia milícií vystúpila z dvoch dobrých salv a potom sa uvoľnila dozadu. Keď boli postupujúci Briti 100 yardov od Druhej línie, Pickens nariadil svojim mužom strieľať. Britské straty boli vážne najmä pre dôstojníkov. Puškári z Virginie na bokoch rozsekali Tarletonovu kavalériu a poslali ich na ústup. Ich dve strely vyšli, Patriotova druhá línia sa stiahla doľava. Keď Briti postúpili do dosahu Howardovej tretej línie, proces sa opakoval. Tarleton neskôr priznal, že „produkoval veľa zabíjačiek“. Gen Morgan, ktorý cítil, ako Briti pokrivkávajú, rozpútal Washingtonovu kavalériu a nariadil bajonetový náboj, ktorý Britov zaskočil a poslal ich na útek. Údaje o nehodách sa zdajú byť neprimerané: 110 Britov zabitých, 200 zranených a 525 zajatých Američanov 12 mŕtvych, 60 zranených. Táto šokujúca porážka údajne rozhnevala Cornwallisa, ktorý sa pokúsil Morgana presvedčiť, ale bránili mu daždivé rieky. Morgan ustúpil smerom k Severnej Karolíne a 23. januára prešiel cez rieku Catawba. Animáciu tejto bitky si môžete pozrieť tu (odkaz). [543]

Súdny dom v Guilforde

Generál Nathanael Greene sa 30. januára 1781 stretol s generálom Danielom Morganom a odtiahol sa ďalej na sever k rieke Dan, severne od hraníc Severnej Karolíny vo Virgínii. Ich cieľom bolo ďalšie natiahnutie Cornwallisovej zásobovacej linky. Generál Cornwallis si myslel, že má príležitosť chytiť americkú južnú armádu proti zatopenému Danovi. Greene však použil plukovníka Otho Williamsa ako návnadu, aby viedol Cornwallisa ďalej na severozápad, zatiaľ čo Greeneova armáda prekročila Dan pomocou člnov v zaplavených východných brodoch 14. a 15. februára. [518] Cornwallis sa stiahol do Hillsborough, aby sa preskupil, naverboval ďalšie toryské milície a zásoboval svoju armádu. Čo sa týka skončenia platnosti zaradenia, armáda Gen Greena sa zmenšovala

1500. Z prihlášok na dôchodok vieme, že keď Cornwallis vstúpil do Virgínie neďaleko južného Bostonu, obecne sa volalo po mužoch, aby sa pripojili k ich krajským milíciám. Greene sa dočasne utáboril v budove súdu v Halifaxe. 28. FEB. Pri rieke Haw, ku Weitzelovmu mlynu v Reedy Fork Creek 6. marca, došlo k potýčkam a kavaléria, ktorá zatienila plukovníka Leeho Cornwallisa, bola 11. a 12. marca v potýčkach. [509, 519]

Do 10. marca mohol generál Greene napísať guvernérovi Thomasovi Jeffersonovi, že „milície sa skutočne zhromaždili z rôznych strán“. [520] Brigádny generál Robert Lawson priniesol

650 Virgínska domobrana Brigádny generál John Butler a Thomas Eaton priniesli

1000 milícií zo Severnej Karolíny

Z Virginie pricestovalo 500 kontinentálnych ľudí, ktorí boli pridaní k dvom plukom Virgínie, konečne k ďalšiemu

Prišlo 900 milicionárov Virginie celkom

4400 vojakov. Generál Cornwallis mal menej ako polovicu tohto počtu

2 000 tvrdých, ostrieľaných profesionálov. [510]

Marec Greene 12. marca opustil High Rock Ford [510] a namieril svoje sily k súdnemu domu v Guilforde, kde plánoval bojovať s armádou generála Cornwallisa na základe vlastného výberu. Počas „kvóty voči Danovi“ Greene študoval terén okolo budovy súdu. Potenciálne bojové pole bolo rozdelené na tri odlišné oblasti od juhu na sever: 1) bahnité, strnisko zasiahnuté pole, za ktorým bol plot s delenou koľajou s avenue ústupu do lesa, 2) samotné lesy, ktoré by dezorganizovali britskú armádu cez ne postupujúce stĺpce a 3) plytká roklina úhora, po ktorej nasleduje známka až k budove súdu.

Greene tiež zobral na vedomie príklad generála Morgana z Cowpens a jeho rady týkajúce sa milícií:

„Ak budú bojovať, porazíte Cornwallisa, ak nie, porazí vás a možno rozsekne vašich štamgastov na kusy. postavte milíciu do stredu s niekoľkými vybranými jednotkami v tyle a s príkazom zostreliť prvého muža, ktorý beží. “[521]

V noci pršalo. V polovici rána 15. marca 1781 nasadil Green tri rady vojsk:

  • Prvá línia - jeho najmenej skúsená sila, 1000 domobrany v Severnej Karolíne, umiestnených po bahnitom poli kukuričného strniska, na okraji lesa a za deleným zábradlím pod Gensom. Butler a Eaton. Generál Nathaniel Greene ukotvil ich boky s bedfordskými puškami plukovníka Charlesa Lyncha vpravo plus podplukovník William Washington Cavalry, ako môžete vidieť nižšie. Na ľavom boku boli Virginia Mountainmen plukovníka Williama Campbella a kavaléria plukovníka Leeho. Dostali rozkaz vystreliť dve náboje, potom odísť do lesa a pripojiť sa k Druhej línii. [511, 521]
  • Druhý riadok - asi 300 yardov za plotom delenej koľajnice a v lese, skúsenejšie milície z Virginie s

Benjamin Milam a poručík William Milam

Poručík William Milam, Benjamin Milam a John Kennedy boli členmi Virginie plukovníka Charlesa Lyncha Puškári: 10 spoločností s celkovým počtom 200 mužov. Podľa žiadostí o dôchodok odišli z Bedford County na konci februára 1781 v reakcii na návrh po vstupe armády generála Cornwallisa do Virginie (14. februára). Pochodovali na juh cez okres Pittsylvania nepochybne po Seminole Trail, hlavnej severojužnej koloniálnej ceste v Piemonte (USA 29). Na dnešnej mape by pochodovali okolo Danville, VA a smerovali do Greensboro, NC. Nathaniel Roundtree povedal, že sa spojili s generálom Greeneom v blízkosti Visutej skaly Ford na rieke Haw „južne od rieky Dan a spomenul“, v rôznych časoch sa spolu s Britmi zúčastnilo niekoľko šarvátok. „Pravdepodobne vrátane šarvátky vo Weitzelovom mlyne na rieke Haw 6. marca. Regiment plukovníka Lyncha do nich nebol zapojený.

Nasledujú citáty týkajúce sa bitky, najmä na pravom (severnom) boku generála Nathaniela Greena, ktorý zahŕňal pušky plukovníka Charlesa Lyncha, a teda Milamsa a Johna Kennedyho. Moje žlté čiary na mape vyššie ukazujú polohu a pohyby puškárov Col Lyncha.

„Cornwallis na svojich mužov tvrdo tlačil už pred svitaním. By the time they arrived at the field they were hungry and tired." [544]

"Around 1:30 pm [513] the American First Line caught sight of the advanced guard of the British columns. some 800 yards west of the waiting militia." The Americans opened the battle by sporadically firing of their two 6 pound guns Cornwallis responded with his three 3 pound 'galloper' guns. [523] . "the artilery duel played itself out over 20 minutes . under cover of the growing smoke, the British started their advance. It was a martial spectacle. with muskets at the shoulder, bayonets fixed, drums and colors to the fore. " [524]

“. the British and Hessians advanced through the muddy corn stubble and up the slight rise looking “steady and guarded.”. o

120 yards some of the NC militia fired their first volley then started to drible away. “Once they reached point blank range, some 50 yards from the split-rail fence, all four British regiments halted, presented their muskets, and fired a single, devastating volley.” [524] "As the British followed up their volley with a steady advance, the majority of militia (NC) turned and ran. Gen Greene asked for two volleys and mostly he got one." [525]

“The fire of Capt Robert Kirkwood’s Delaware company and Lynch’s Virginia Rifles also forced Lt Col Webster to react, swinging his 33rd Foot slightly to his left to prevent his line being enfiladed as it passed.” [525] "

“As the militia along the fence routed, the two flanks of the American First Line were in danger of being isolated. Lynch and Kirkwood gave the orders to fall back to the positions allocated to them on the extreme right flank of the Second Line, their retreat covered by Washington’s cavalry. ” [526]

& quot. the British. formations were broken up by the woods, although they held positions in what approximated a north-south line. ” [526]

“Given the terrain , it was inevitable that the fighting on the Second Line would degenerate into a series of small actions in which groups of British regulars fought to come into contact with isolated groups of Virginia militia.”

“. but, in general, they pressed on through the woods, driving the Virginians before them.” “To the north of the 33rd Foot, the German Jaegers and the light companies of Guards had come under heavy fire from Kirkwood’s Delaware company and Lynch’s Rifles. [68] [514]

“The battle for the second American line was a hard-fought engagement in almost impossibly dense woods. Although the Virginian militia had been unable to stop the advance of Cornwallis’s army, they had disordered their neat formations and had inflicted casualties. Witnesses recall that after the battle the woods on each side of the road were strewn with the dead and wounded of both armies. ” [527]

"Shortly before 2:30 pm. It was clear that the British had defeated both lines of militiamen in front of them. Next, Kirkwood's Delaware company and Lynch's Rifles appeared through the woods to the north of the clearing, taking up positions to the right of Col John Green's 4th Virginia Regiment on the extreme right of the American Line." [529[

The first British "to emerge were the Jaegers and light infantry on the extreme north edge of the clearing, closely followed by the British 33rd Foot". "Lt Col Webster ordered his men forward, pausing only to straighten their lines". "The Continentals < VA >waited until the British were within point-blank range then fired a crushing volley." It halted the British. "One of the fallen was Webster himself, whose knee had been shattered by a musket ball. He had little option but to order a retreat." [529]

& quot. more British troops emerged from the woods to the right of the 33rd Foot the 2nd Battalion, Foot Guards and Grenadiers. " "they were commanded by Lt Col Charles Stuart. " He ordered them to advance. "Col Otho Williams commanding the Maryland Brigade watched as the men of the 2nd Maryland fired a single hasty volley. then turned and ran. Stuart's men overran the two cannons and chased the Marylanders into the forest behind them. This was the pivotal moment of the battle." [529] Thus Greene's left flank was turned and the Americans were in danger of being encircled.

"General Greene realized that his army was more important than any potential victory, and took the only course that would safeguard his most important resource. He ordered a general retreat. " [530] It was about 3:30 o'clock.

"The American army had survived. In Gen Greene's words: 'we fight, we get beat, rise and fight again'." [531]

& quotSome of the worst fighting occurred on the flanks. Virginia Col. Charles Lynch lost four of his ten company commanders. He also had eleven enlisted men killed and many wounded." [535] A report by Gen Otho Williams showed that Col Campbell and Col Lynch had a total of 94 missing riflemen out of their initial

400", roughly 47 from each Regiment.

Benjamin Milam and William Milam and John Kennedy were among these. [515]

You may view an animation of the Battle of Guilford Courthouse here (link) .

Memoirs of the Reign of George III to Parliament, Vol 3, contains the following accessment:

The British lost 93 killed, 413 wounded and 26 missing - this represented over a quarter of their men. They captured 4 canons and 1300 muskets and rifles - mostly left my the North Carolina militia when they fled. A British opposition politician, Charles James Fox, declared: "Another such victory would ruin the British army". [516, 532]

"..the army spent the day burying the dead and collecting their wounded, who were taken to the New Garden Friends Meeting House. They also gathered the American wounded <

100 men> at Guilford Courthouse and word was sent to Gen Greene to supply surgeons." [532]

British Brig. Gen. Charles O'Hara writing to the Duke of Grafton:

British Sergeant Roger Lamb, 23rd Regiment, Royal Welsh Fusiliers:

In a 16 MAR report, Lt General Charles Cornwallis wrote: "I shall. leave about seventy of the worse of the wounded cases at the New-garden Quaker meeting house, with proper assistance, and move the remainder of the army to-morrow morning to Bell's mill." [545] In his biography, British Lt Col Banastre Tarleton wrote: “The severely wounded, to the amount of seventy, with several Americans who were in the same situation were lodged, under the protection of a flag of truce, in New Garden meeting house, and other adjacent buildings. ” [546]

Lt General Nathanael Greene reported American losses: 79 men killed, 185 wounded and 1046 missing. [532] About one hundred American wounded were found by the British on the battle field and left at the Courthouse. Of the missing most were NC militia who simply went home. [532]

What Happened to Benjamin Milam and John Kennedy After the Battle?

According to Generals Cornwallis and Greene, the British kept few if any American prisoners. We know that the British not only lacked supplies, food and tents but sufficient wagons. Given his army's desperate condition it made sense that he not only left behind seventy of his own wounded with the Quakers but also left wounded American captives at the Courthouse.

On 16 MAR Gen Greene sent surgeons and some supplies to care for his wounded at the Courthouse. A few days later when Gen Greene decided to pursue Cornwallis south he also turned to the Quakers.

Terry Golway writes in his biography of Greene, Washington's General:

Quoting from Greene's letter to his wife of the 16th, "I had not the honor of being wounded. & quot

"So many of his men, however, were wounded, and it is not likely they considered their suffering an honor. They were left to the care of local residents with uncertain and perhaps dubious medical skills. With their tribulations on his mind, Greene wrote a moving letter to Quakers living in New Garden near Guilford Court House, asking for their help in tending to his wounded. He took the occasion to cite his own Quaker background. " [532, 547]

We must presume these wounded included Benjamin Milam, Lt William Milam and John Kennedy since they did not return to Bedford with their militia. Benjamin and John died of their wounds on June 19 and 26th respectively, more than three months after the battle. William Milam was finally able to return to Bedford County on August 2nd. [534]

On 16 MAR General Nathanael Greene found time to write an account of the battle to Samuel Huntington, President of the Continental Congress which was published by David C. Claypoole on 31 MAR. You may read Greene's account here (image) .

The Battle of Guilford Courthouse was the turning point not only of the Southern Campaign but also of the Revolutionary War. Lt Gen Cornwallis had 3,300 men in and around Charleston, South Carolina, when he moved north in persuit of the American army. After Guilford Courthouse he had only 1400 able bodied men and they were worn out.

Seven months later General Charles Cornwallis would surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, on 19 OCT 1781.

Následky

Benjamin Milam had made his Will on 13 OCT 1780:

"In the name of God, Amen, 13th of October one Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty

I Benjamin Millam of Bedford County being in perfect health and of good and Sound memory, Thanks be to all mighty God, calling to mind the mortality or afirmity of body and knowing it is appointed for all men once to die, do make and ordain this my last will and Testament that is to say:

Principally, and first of all I give and Recommend my Sole into the hands of the allmighty God that gave it and my body I Recommend to the Earth to be buried in a decent form. If the almight willing and where with the allmighty God has been pleased to bless me with in this life, I give, disvise and dispose of In the following manner and form:

First, I Give and Bequeath to Elisebeth Millam, my Loving Wife whome I appoint, make and ordain the Sole Executrixe of this my last Will and Testament, all my Stocks of all kinds, Together with all my Household goods, debts and movable affects, Endureing her continuing her life unaltered. but if she sees cause to mary again to be Sold and Equily Divided amongst my children. and I do heareby utterly disallow, revoke and disannul all and every other former testaments, wills, Legacies and Bequests and Executors by me in any wise before named, willed or bequeathed. Ratifying and confirming this and no other to be my last Will and Testament.

Witness where of I have Heare unto set my hand and Seal this Thirteenth day of October the year above mentioned. Signed, Sealed and delivered in Presants of us.


William Millam

Moses Milam


Benjamin Millam (Seal)" [608]

On 22 OCT 1781 Benjamin Milam's Will was approved. "Last Will and Testament of Benjamin Milam deceased was proved by the Oath's of William Millam and Moses Milam his Witnesses thereto subscribed and on the motion of Elizabeth Milam as Executor therein named who made Oath thereto. Certificate is granted her claiming probate in due form. Jarvis Jackson and Rush Milam her securities.

Thomas Logwood, Isaac Banester and Henry Jeter. were Appointed to Appraise the said deceased Estate." [609]

25 Mar 1782 BEDFORD COUNTY, ORDER BOOK 6, 338. Benjamin Milam proved that he lost his rifle gun & blanket in the action of Guilford under Gen. Green. Allowed £ 8. 10. [610]

In the Fall of 1782, William Milam petitioned the Virginia House of Delegates requesting back pay for himself, Benjamin Milam and John Kennedy which was approved on 4 DEC 1782.

On 23 DEC 1782 this Inventory and Appraisement of the Estate of Benjamin Milam, Deceased, was Returned to Court and Ordered Recorded.

You may view pages 432 and 433 of the original Inventory here (image) . [611, 612]

23 OCT 1786 BEDFORD COUNTY, DEED BOOK 7, 658. Moses Milam Deed to Elizabeth Milam, the relic of Benjamin Milam.

&ldquoThis Indenture Made this twenty third day of October in the Year of Our Lord One thousand seven Hundred and eighty six, Between Moses Milam of Bedford County of the one part, and Elizabeth Milam (Relic of late Benjamin Milam, Deceased) of the other part.

Witnesseth, that the said Moses Milam for and in Consideration of the Sum of Twenty one pounds Currant to him in hand paid by the above Benjamin Milam before his decease, the receipt whereof the said Moses Milam doth hereby confess and acknowledge, Had bargained and sold to the said Milam, deceased, and doth by these presents grant and Convey to the said Elizabeth Milam during her Natural Life, and after her decease to revert to the Heir at Law of the said Benjamin Milam deceased, a Certain Tract or parcel of Land lying and being in the County of Bedford upon the waters of the Otter River and bounded as follows, to wit, Beginning at a point of Rocks on the North side of Boyles Branch&hellipto a Pine in Boyd&rsquos line, thence along the said Line&hellipto Boyd&rsquos Corner Pine&hellip.Containing One Hundred and twenty acres&hellipTogether with every Appertanance there unto belonging to the said Elizabeth Milam and unto the Heir at Law of the said Benjamin Milam, deceased. Signed, Sealed & delivered in the presents of

Moses Milam.

At a Court held for Bedford County the 23rd day of October 1786.This Indenture along with the Memorandum of Livery and Seizon thereon endorced were Acknowledged by Moses Milam party thereto and Ordered to be Recorded

You may read this touching document for yourself here (image) . It demonstrates that Moses and Benjamin not only worked together as carpenters but also shared property together. Thus they were very close. I suspect this is the real reason that Moses named a son, Benjamin Rush Milam. Rush of course was the maiden name of their mother, Mary Rush. My ancestor was Rush Milam, the youngest son of Thomas and Mary Rush Milam, also named a son, Benjamin Rush Milam. Over time Rush has become a recurring given name in the Milam lineage.

Elizabeth Milam apparently removed to Logan County, Kentucky.

Issue of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Jackson) Milam:

I. Deborah Milam Born circa 1773 Bedford County, Virginia

II. Solomon Milam Born March 14, 1775 Bedford County, Virginia

III. Ruth Milam Born circa 1777 Bedford County, Virginia Married John Murphy on February 18, 1797 in Bedford County, Virginia

IV. Joseph Milam Born April 30, 1779 Bedford County, Virginia

V. Benjamin Milam, Jr. Born January 27, 1781 Bedford County, Virginia

Please see the records chronology for more records here .

NOTE TO READERS: Most all the words in bold type face are links to images, maps or word definitions in the Glossary. The Citácie a Glosár are available under the Resources tab or here (link) .


Return to Mexico

In 1824 Ben Milam returned to Mexico City. Iturbide had been deposed, and Trespalacios was no longer Texas governor. He and Milam patched up their differences. Trespalacios even helped Milam obtain Mexican citizenship. In his application, Milam referred to the sacrifices he had made for the cause of Mexican emancipation.

In fact after having suffered privations and inexplicable miseries in those lonely deserts, I went in 1821 for the purpose of again offering my services and I remained in it until the ex-Emperor Iturbide, having been declared absolute, had me arrested without my knowing why, and I had to stay for six months in prison, afterwards making me go out of the country without even furnishing me a peso for expenditure on the way, compensating me in this way for the services I had alleged. But having come to the time when this country has established a just and free government, I ask that your Highness will have the kindness to admit me into the multitude of citizens of the Republic, granting me letters of citizenship in compensation for the services and sacrifices I made in favor of the cause of independence. (5)

Ben Milam wanted Mexican citizenship so he could obtain land in Texas. He became a Mexican citizen on June 24, 1824. On January 12, 1826, Milam received permission to establish a colony between the Guadalupe and Colorado Rivers. According to Milam’s empresario contract, within the next six years he was obliged to bring 300 families “of industrious habit” to Texas. (6) Milam also became the agent for an Englishman, Arthur G. Wavell, who had a contract to settle 500 families on the Red River. A letter from Milam to Poinsett dated August 28, 1825 gives some indication of the conditions in Texas at the time:

At present the country is in rather a unpleasant situation on account of the Comanche Indians who has again commenst their Savaige wars on the frontier inhabitants of this Stait. They have murderd severil families laterly & stole maney horses etc. I have been in the frontiers of Texas for some time and have observd that the Stait of Louisianna have lost a grait maney slaives that have taken refuge in this Republick of Mexico. The evill arising from this to the oaners [owners] and such citizens as may hereafter be in the saim situation is obvious, and as Texas forms a protection at all times as well as the territory of new Leone and Tamilepas and in short all frontier bordering on the U.S. are apt and posibly inosently to admit not only slaves but every class of depridators and refugees. It farther appears that maney parts of this country rather encourage and harbour such delinquents or refugees and outlaws as abscond from our country to this, not being able to live under one of the best governments existing. I am sorry to trouble you with those remarks on the subject but being well aware of your capasity to forsee the evil that will arise, not only to this country but also to those colonies that are forming from the U.S. (7)

In Texas, Ben Milam met Annie McKinney, to whom he became engaged sometime after 1826. Just before they were to be married, Milam was compelled to travel south to meet Wavell in Mexico and then, in 1828, to travel to England to deal with problems arising from some silver mines that he and Wavell owned. When Annie didn’t hear from Milam, she thought he had died or changed his mind. Thus when Milam returned to Texas in 1829, toting a mahogany table and silverware for his bride-to-be, he learned that she had married somebody else. He gave the gifts to her younger sister, Eliza, who had married Milam’s nephew. He reportedly told her:

I haven’t any time for women anyway my country needs me. (8)

In April 1830 the Mexican Congress passed a law prohibiting further immigration of United States citizens into Texas. Milam was thus not able to introduce the required number of settlers specified in his empresario contract before it expired in 1832. None of Milam’s other ventures, including the mines in Mexico and an attempt to develop timber tracts on the Trinity River, fared any better. He did, in 1831, succeed in improving navigation on the Red River by removing enough of the Great Raft (a gigantic log jam) to run a steamboat up the river. Until then the upper part of the river had been navigable only by canoes and small, flat-bottomed boats.


Ben Milam – "Who Will Follow Old Ben Milam?"

Bad luck had followed Ben Milam most of his life. What luck he did have finally ran out when he was killed by a Mexican bullet in the Battle of San Antonio on December 8, 1835. He became the first in a long line of immortal Texas heroes.

Benjamin Rush Milam was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, on October 20, 1788. He grew up in Kentucky and served in the War of 1812. In 1815, when he and two partners chartered a schooner to take a load of flour to South America, the Captain and most of the crew died of yellow fever, and the rest were nearly killed in a storm.

Milam went to Texas in 1818 to trade with the Comanche Indians. Among the tribes he met David G. Burnet who was living with the Comanche. The two men formed a friendship that lasted many years. In 1819 Milam joined the fight for Mexican Independence from Spain. Betrayed and imprisoned in Mexico City, he was released through the intervention of the American Minister in Mexico City, Joel Poinsett, who was also the man who introduced York Rite Masonry into Mexico.

By December of 1835 Milam had joined the Texas volunteers’ siege of General Cos at San Antonio. But as the weeks wore on, and the weather turned cold, many of the Texan officers and men were voting to give up and go home. Milam wasn’t about to give up. He stepped forward and shouted, “Who will follow old Ben Milam into San Antonio? Who will go with old Ben Milam to Bexar?” Three hundred men stepped forward. The assault on San Antonio was a success, and the Mexicans surrendered after five days of fighting, but Ben Milam, the old empresario, lay dead.

Colonel Edward Burleson recorded in his diary that Milam was buried with Masonic honors in the courtyard of the Veramendi Palace. He was a member of Hiram Lodge No. 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky.

* From The Texas Mason
By Pete Normand, PM
Texas Lodge of Research


Ben Milam - History

Benjamin Rush Milam is best known for leading one of the two companies at the Seige of Bexar in the fall of 1835. He came to Texas in 1818 and became involved in the struggle for Mexican independence. In 1826, he received an empresario contract to settle 300 families between the Guadalupe and Colorado Rivers north of the San Antonio Road.

Talbot Chambers was appointed land commissioner and issued fifty-three land titles to settlers in Milam's Colony in 1835.

For more information on Milam and Milam's Colony see the entry for Ben Milam (1788-1835) at the Handbook of Texas Online .

Scope and Contents of the Records

The records of Milam's Colony includes land titles, testimonios, unfinished titles, blank titles, correspondence, and plat maps, 1824-1835. The Records also include a volume of transcribed titles dated October 7, 1845. The correspondence includes Milam's empresario contract and other documents relating to the management of the colony.

Usporiadanie

Obmedzenia

Access Restrictions

Use Restrictions

Most records created by Texas state agencies are not copyrighted and may be freely used in any way. State records also include materials received by, not created by, state agencies. Copyright remains with the creator. The researcher is responsible for complying with U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S.C.).

Podmienky Indexu

Related Archival Materials note

It lists 122 families showing the names of each family member, age, profession, and place of origin.

Administratívne informácie

Preferovaná citácia

[Short title of Document], [Date: Day-Month-Year]. Box [#], Folder [#], p. [#]. Milam's Colony Records (AR.87.ML). Archives and Records Program, Texas General Land Office, Austin.

Digital Copies

Materials have been digitized. See the Texas General Land Office Land Grant Database and input the surname of the individual grantee. For contract records and correspondence, enter the number into the Certificate field.


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About Benjamin Rush "Ben" Milam

Benjamin Rush "Ben" Milam (October 20, 1788 – December 7, 1835) was a leading figure in the Texas Revolution. Milam County, Texas was named in his honor. He was born in Kentucky.

Milam was born in Frankfort, Kentucky, on October 20, 1788. He was the fifth of the six children of Moses Milam and his wife, Elizabeth Pattie Boyd.

Milam had little or no formal schooling. He enlisted as a private in the 8th Regiment of the Kentucky Militia, but eventually was elected a lieutenant. He served in the War of 1812.

In 1818, after learning of the trading opportunities with the Indians of the upper Red River, Milam traveled to Coahuila y Texas to trade with the Comanches. While there, he met David G. Burnet, who at the time was living with the Indians in an attempt to get over his tuberculosis. In New Orleans in 1819, Milam met José Félix Trespalacios and James Long, who were planning an expedition to help the revolutionaries in Mexico gain their independence from Spain. Milam joined Trespalacios and was commissioned a colonel by him.

In Puerto Vallarta and Mexico City, Trespalacios and Milam met the same reception Long had previously received. The non-revolutionaries had them jailed. While in prison, Long was mysteriously killed (reportedly shot by a guard), and Milam blamed Tresplacios. Milam was again imprisoned for threatening to kill Tresplacios. Milam and his friends were sent to Mexico City where Agustín de Iturbide ordered all of them shot. Milam and the others were imprisoned until the fall of 1822, when they were released, thanks to the influence of Joel R. Poinsett, U.S. Commissioner of Observation to Mexico. Poinsett secured their freedom and, with the exception of Milam, all were returned to the United States on the sloop-of-war USS John Adams (1799).

By the spring of 1824 Milam had returned to Mexico, which was adopting the 1824 Constitution of Mexico and a republican form of government. Milam was granted Mexican citizenship and commissioned a colonel in the Mexican army.

From 1800 to 1820, Milam was Arthur Wavell's partner in a silver mine operation in Nuevo León. The two also obtained empresario grants in Texas. In 1829, Milam intended to organize a new mining company in partnership with David Burnet, but failed due to a lack of funds. In 1835, Milam went to Monclova, the capital of Coahuila y Texas to urge the new governor, Agustín Viesca, to send a land commissioner to Texas to provide the settlers with land titles. However, before Milam could leave the city, word arrived that Antonio López de Santa Anna had overthrown the representative government of Mexico and established a dictatorship. Governor Viesca fled with Milam, but both were captured and imprisoned at Monterey. Milam eventually escaped, thanks to sympathetic jailers who gave him a horse and let him escape.

By chance, he encountered a company of Texas soldiers commanded by George Collinsworth, from whom he learned of the movement in Texas for independence. Milam joined them, helping to capture Goliad on October 10. He wrote: "I assisted Mexico to gain her independence. I have endured heat and cold, hunger and thirst I have borne losses and suffered persecutions I have been a tenant of every prison between this and Mexico. But the events of this night have compensated me for all my losses and all my sufferings."

He then marched with them to join the main army in capturing San Antonio. On November 18 Stephen F. Austin resigned command of the Texan forces at San Antonio to fulfill his mission to the United States as a commissioner. Edward Burleson was elected on November 24 by the volunteers to take Austin's place and then commissioned as commander of the volunteer army by the provisional government on December 1.

While returning from a scouting mission in the southwest on December 4, 1835, Milam learned that a majority of the army had decided not to attack San Antonio as planned, but to go instead into winter quarters. Burleson and his council of officers were reluctant to attack, and the next day at 3 pm, Milam went to Burleson’s tent to ask permission to call for volunteers to storm the city. Burleson had little choice but to go along with Milam's plan. Milam was convinced that putting off the final assault on San Antonio would be a disaster for the cause of independence. He then made his famous impassioned plea: "Who will go with old Ben Milam into Bexar?" Three hundred volunteered to attack at dawn on December 5.

Plans were quickly made. The men would form at an abandoned mill, Molino Blanco or Zambrano's mill, at 3 a.m., while Burleson was to hold the rest as a reserve. At the same time, Captain James C. Neil was to open fire with two cannons on the Alamo to distract the Mexican soldiers.

On December 7, 1835 Milam, standing with Frank Johnson and Henry Karnes near the Veramendi house, was shot in the head by a Mexican rifleman and killed instantly. He fell into the arms of Samuel Maverick. He had been trying to observe the San Fernando church tower with a field telescope given to him by Stephen Austin. Robert Morris was chosen to take over Milam’s command of the first division.

The Mexican Army lost more than 400 killed, deserted or wounded in the ensuing battle. Texan losses were only 20 to 30 killed. The siege ended on December 9, 1835 when Martín Perfecto de Cos sent a subordinate to negotiate a truce with the Texans. Morris gave Cos and his troops six days to leave the Alamo. Burleson provided the Mexican Army with such supplies as he could spare, and the Mexican wounded were allowed to remain behind to be treated by Texan doctors.


Ben Milam

(Left Panel)
Benjamin Rush Milam
participated in the
capture of Goliad
October Ninth 1835
was killed in San
Antonio December
Seventh 1835 while
commanding the Texas
forces which later
captured the town

(Rear Panel)
Who will follow
Old Ben Milam
into San Antonio

Erected by the
State of Texas
1936 with funds
appropriated
by the Federal
government to
commemorate
one hundred
years of Texas
Nezávislosť

Erected 1936 by the State of Texas. (Číslo značky 7984.)

Témy a série. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: War, Texas Independence. In addition, it is included in the Texas 1936 Centennial Markers and Monuments series list. A significant historical date for this entry is December 7, 1835.

N, 96° 58.588′ W. Marker is in Cameron, Texas, in Milam County. Marker is at the intersection of East Main Street and South Central Avenue, on the right when traveling west on East Main Street. Monument is located at the southwest corner of the courthouse grounds. Dotykom zobrazíte mapu. Marker is at or near this postal address: 102 South Fannin Avenue, Cameron TX 76520, United States of America. Dotykom zobrazíte trasu.

Ostatné značkovače v okolí. V pešej vzdialenosti od tejto značky je najmenej 8 ďalších značiek. Milam County Courthouse (a few steps from this marker) a different marker also named Milam County Courthouse (within shouting distance of this marker) Mrs. Edna Westbrook Trigg (within shouting distance of this marker) First Girl's Tomato Club in Texas (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Milam County Jail of 1895 (about 300 feet away) First National Bank of Cameron (about 500 feet away) First United Methodist Church of Cameron (approx. 0.2 miles away) All Saints Episcopal Church (approx. 0.2 miles away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Cameron.

Tiež vidieť. . . Milam, Benjamin Rush - The Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) (Submitted on January 30, 2019, by Brian Anderson of Kingwood, Texas.)


Ben Milam statue, Milam County Courthouse grounds

Photograph of the base of a statue of Ben Milam on the grounds of the Milam County Courthouse. It says, "Who will follow Old Ben Milam into San Antonio. Erected by the state of Texas 1936 with funds appropriated by the Federal Government to commemorate one hundred years of Texas independence."

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Photograph of the base of a statue of Ben Milam on the grounds of the Milam County Courthouse. It says, "Who will follow Old Ben Milam into San Antonio. Erected by the state of Texas 1936 with funds appropriated by the Federal Government to commemorate one hundred years of Texas independence."

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