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ArchitectureIslam - História

ArchitectureIslam - História


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Islam

V roku 570 n. L. Sa Muhammed narodil v Mekke. Do šiestich rokov sirota vyrastal a stal sa z neho správca karavanov a potom obchodník v Mekke. Muhammed nebol spokojný so správaním sa obyvateľov Mekky a často chodil meditovať do púšte. Na jednom z týchto ústupov zažil víziu. Táto vízia viedla k sérii odhalení, ktoré sa stali Koránom.


Muhammed sa vrátil do Mekky a začal kázať. Jeho stúpenci v Mekke boli prenasledovaní a v roku 622 Muhammed a jeho nasledovníci opustili Mekku, ktorá sa začala nazývať „Hegira“ alebo útek, a utiekli do Mediny. V roku 628 sa Muhammed na čele armády vrátil do Mekky. Po jeho smrti v roku 632 jeho učeníci pokračovali v jeho práci.
Mohamedovým nástupcom bol jeho svokor Abu-Kabr, ktorý sa stal prvým kalifom. On a jeho nástupcovia spustili svätú vojnu alebo „džihád“ proti arabským neveriacim a pomaly obrátili väčšinu arabského sveta na novú vieru, známu ako islam. Ako sa islam rozširoval, rozpad sa vyvíjal tak, ako sa vyvíjali samostatné arabské ríše. Islam sa však naďalej šíril a expandoval cez Egypt, cez celú severnú Afriku a nakoniec do Španielska. Rast islamu mnohokrát ohrozoval Konštantínopol. Strach z nevercov čiastočne viedol ku križiackym výpravám. Koncom 14. storočia bol islam vytlačený zo Španielska a začala existovať Osmanská ríša. Osmani sa čoskoro stanú dominujúcou moslimskou mocou.


Svetská architektúra

Zatiaľ čo funkcie náboženských budov raného islamu nemohli existovať bez novej viery, funkcie sekulárnej moslimskej architektúry a priori nemajú žiadny konkrétne islamský charakter. Platí to o to viac, že ​​je len ťažko možné poukázať na významnú novú potrebu alebo zvyk, ktorý by si dobyvajúci moslimovia priniesli z Arábie, a pretože v dobytých oblastiach bolo zničených tak málo. Dá sa teda predpokladať, že všetky predislamské funkcie, ako život, obchodovanie a výroba, pokračovali v akomkoľvek architektonickom prostredí, ktoré mohli mať. Iba jedna výnimka je istá. So zaniknutím sásánovského kráľovstva prestala predislamská iránska cisárska tradícia a inde dobyli menší králi a miestodržitelia opustili svoje paláce a hrady. Bola vytvorená nová cisárska moc, ktorá sa nachádzala najskôr v Damasku, potom krátko v severosýrskom meste Al-Ruṣāfah a nakoniec v irackom Bagdade a Sāmarrāji. Noví guvernéri a neskôr takmer nezávislé kniežatá prevzali hlavné mestá provincií, ktoré boli niekedy starými sídlami vlády a inokedy novými moslimskými centrami. Vo všetkých prípadoch však nie je dôvod predpokladať, že kvôli architektúre moci alebo potešenia by raní moslimovia cítili potrebu zmeniť predislamské tradície. V ranej islamskej sekulárnej architektúre je skutočne veľa toho, čo možno použiť na ilustráciu svetského umenia inde - napríklad v Byzancii alebo dokonca na Západe. Ak má akýkoľvek nový politický alebo sociálny subjekt uspieť v zachovaní vlastnej identity, musí však svojim sekulárnym potrebám poskytnúť určité smery a dôraz, ktoré v konečnom dôsledku vytvoria jedinečný kultúrny obraz. To sa stalo vo vývoji Umayyadu a ranej ʿAbbāsidskej sekulárnej architektúry.

K vývoju novej sekulárnej architektúry prispeli tri faktory. Jedným z nich bolo, že akumulácia obrovského bohatstva myšlienok, pracovníkov a peňazí v rukách moslimských kniežat usadených v Sýrii a Iraku dala vzniknúť unikátnej palácovej architektúre. Druhým faktorom bol impulz daný mestskému životu a obchodu. Od Sijilmassy na okraji marockej Sahary po Nīshāpūr na severovýchode Iránu boli založené nové mestá a arabskí obchodníci z 9. storočia obchodovali až do Číny. Druhou témou, ktorej sa budeme venovať nižšie, bude teda mestský dizajn a komerčná architektúra. Tretím faktorom je, že prvýkrát od Alexandra Veľkého sa svet siahajúci od Stredozemia po Indiu kultúrne zjednotil. Výsledkom bolo, že dekoratívne motívy, nápady na dizajn, štrukturálne techniky a remeselníci a architekti - ktoré do tej doby patrili k úplne odlišným kultúrnym tradíciám - boli k dispozícii na rovnakých miestach. Raná islamská kniežacia architektúra sa stala najznámejším a najoriginálnejším aspektom raných islamských svetských budov.


ArchitectureIslam - História

V roku 570 n. L. Sa Muhammed narodil v Mekke. Do šiestich rokov sirota vyrastal a stal sa z neho správca karavanov a potom obchodník v Mekke. Muhammed nebol spokojný so správaním sa obyvateľov Mekky a často chodil meditovať do púšte. Na jednom z týchto ústupov zažil víziu. Táto vízia viedla k sérii odhalení, ktoré sa stali Koránom.


Muhammed sa vrátil do Mekky a začal kázať. Jeho nasledovníci v Mekke boli prenasledovaní a v roku 622 Muhammed a jeho nasledovníci opustili Mekku, čo sa stalo známym ako „Hegira“ alebo útek, a utiekli do Mediny. V roku 628 sa Muhammed na čele armády vrátil do Mekky. Po jeho smrti v roku 632 jeho učeníci pokračovali v jeho práci.
Mohamedovým nástupcom bol jeho svokor Abu-Kabr, ktorý sa stal prvým kalifom. On a jeho nástupcovia zahájili svätú vojnu alebo „quotjihad“ proti arabským neveriacim a pomaly obrátili väčšinu arabského sveta na novú vieru, známu ako islam. Ako sa islam rozširoval, rozpad sa vyvíjal tak, ako sa vyvíjali samostatné arabské ríše. Islam sa však naďalej šíril a expandoval cez Egypt, cez celú severnú Afriku a nakoniec do Španielska. Rast islamu mnohokrát ohrozoval Konštantínopol. Strach z nevercov čiastočne viedol ku križiackym výpravám. Koncom 14. storočia bol islam vytlačený zo Španielska a začala existovať Osmanská ríša. Osmani sa čoskoro stanú dominujúcou moslimskou mocou.


Techniky islamských dlaždíc

Dlaždica Zellige

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Dlažba Zellige na stene v Madrase Ben Youssefa, islamskej vysokej škole v Marrákeši v Maroku

„Zellige“ (niekedy sa nazýva „zellij“ alebo „zillij“) pochádza z arabského slova „al zulaycha“, čo znamená „malý leštený kameň“. Dlaždice Zellige sú viacfarebné mozaiky, ktoré zvyčajne predstavujú zložité geometrické vzory.

Na vytvorenie zelliges by remeselníci najskôr glazovali dlaždice na jednej strane. Potom dlaždice rozrezali tak, že nakreslili geometrický vzor na glazovanú dlaždicu, pomocou ostrého kladiva vyrezali formu a potom skosili hrany rezanej dlaždice malým kladivkom.

Ďalším krokom bola príprava kresby, ako budú zostavené rôzne tvary a farby dlaždíc. Rezané dlaždice boli zostavené lícom nadol na podlahu podľa výkresu tak, aby boli čo najbližšie k sebe, a naliala sa na ne malta. Potom, čo malta stuhla, bolo možné výslednú zellige nainštalovať.

Turecká kultúrna nadácia vysvetľuje, že zelligeové dlaždice sa často používali na steny, klenby, výklenky mihrabov, prechody do kupol a interiéry kupol.

Použitie zelligeovej mozaiky má svoj pôvod v Maroku v 10. storočí, pričom sa používajú biele a hnedé tóny a napodobňujú sa rímske mozaiky. Nasledujúce dynastie naďalej obohacovali dizajn zellige a zellige bol obzvlášť populárny počas berberskej dynastie v 12. a 13. storočí. Neskôr by zellige dlaždice boli vhodné na vytvorenie portugalskej dlaždice azulejo.

Lesklá maľba

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Dlaždice s lesklými hviezdami z 13. až 14. storočia so spletenými žeriavmi z iránskeho Kašanu

Lesklá maľba je komplexná technika maľovania a vypaľovania, ktorá suspenduje oxidy striebra a medi na povrchu glazovanej dlaždice. Tieto kovy lámu svetlo a vytvárajú to, čo vidíme ako lesklý vzhľad.

Technika maľby lesku bola pôvodne použitá na sklo v Egypte a Sýrii v ôsmom storočí, ale čoskoro potom bola predstavená keramike v Bagdade. Lusterwareská keramika sa potom viac ako storočie vyrábala takmer výlučne v Bagdade.

Napriek tomu, že lesklá maľba môže fungovať s viacerými farbami, vidíme viac monochromatických príkladov, ktoré sa neskôr rozšírili inde v západnej Ázii a potom ďalej na západ do severnej Afriky, Európy a Ameriky.

Maľba na dlaždice pod glazúrou

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Podlahové maľované dlaždice z tureckého Izniku

Zatiaľ čo lesklé maľovanie zahŕňa maľovanie na glazúrovaný povrch, podglazúrová maľba je namaľovaná na neglazovaných dlaždiciach, tvrdí Ensar Taçyildiz zo siete Ceramic Arts Network. Dlaždica je vypálená biskvitom a potom natretá podglazúrou. Po namaľovaní dlaždíc remeselníci nanesú číru glazúru a potom ich naposledy vypália.

Turecká kultúrna nadácia vysvetľuje, že farby pôvodne používané na maľovanie podglazúrami zahŕňali tyrkysovú, fialovú, kobaltovú modrú, zelenú a čiernu. Aby sa zabránilo rozpúšťaniu farieb glazúrou, remeselníci vyvinuli špeciálne pigmenty, ktoré majú podobné zloženie ako ílový sklz. Táto kombinácia vytvorila silné puto, ktoré sa nerozpustí.

Cuerda Seca

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Tento dizajn dlaždíc cuerda seca zdobí fasádu trónnej miestnosti v paláci Topkapi v tureckom Istanbule a pochádza z prvej polovice 16. storočia.

Met Museum popisuje techniku ​​cuerda seca (španielsky „suchá šnúra“) ako obrys oblastí dlaždice, ktorá mala byť natretá mastnou hmotou. Tieto tenké obrysy oddelili rôzne farby a zanechali za sebou suché čiary neglazovanej dlaždice.

Podľa Qantary, lokality venovanej stredomorskému dedičstvu, sa predpokladá, že cuerda seca pochádza z Blízkeho východu v deviatom storočí. Niektoré techniky cuerda seca dosiahli Al-Andalus (moslimské Španielsko) už v druhej polovici 10. storočia a metóda úplného cuerda seca prišla v 11. storočí. Cuerda seca prekvitala v Iráne na konci 14. storočia a potom bola predstavená aj v Turecku a Indii.

Zatiaľ čo tradičné techniky cuerda seca používali látky vyrobené zo živočíšneho tuku a tuku a minerálnych pigmentov, ako je mangán a železo, moderné metódy používajú minerálny olej alebo vosk.

Haft Rang

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Mešita Masjed-e Shah v iránskom Isfaháne ponúka vo svojom interiéri dlaždice haft rang, predovšetkým v sýtej modrej a žltej farbe.

Iránska komorová spoločnosť zaznamenáva, že technika obkladačiek („sedem farieb“) sa stala populárnou v islamskej architektúre počas Safavidskej ríše (1502-1736), keď bolo postavených mnoho náboženských budov. Dlažba Haft rang bola dobrou voľbou z ekonomických dôvodov (výroba bola lacnejšia aj rýchlejšia) a sedem farieb dávalo remeselníkom väčšiu umeleckú slobodu. Podľa iránskej destinácie tieto farby zvyčajne zahŕňali bielu, čiernu, tyrkysovú, ultramarínovú, žltú, červenú a svetlú.

Aby remeselníci vytvorili dlaždice na poschodí, postavili štvorcové dlaždice vedľa seba, namaľovali na ne dizajn v glazovaných farbách, vypálili dlaždice a potom ich počas inštalácie znova usporiadali vedľa seba, aby sa dizajn znova vytvoril.

Girih Tiles

Obrázok prostredníctvom Wikimedia Commons | Strop pavilónu pri Hafezovej hrobke v iránskom Shirazi ponúka popruhy girih v jasne modrej farbe.

V článku „Samosprávne islamské dlaždice Girih ako lekcia dejepisu a cvičenie v triede“ Robert Earl Dewar vysvetľuje, že dlaždice girih pozostávali zo vzorov dlaždíc, ktoré tvorili päť tvarov/predlôh - motýlik, predĺžený šesťuholník, kosoštvorec, päťuholník, a dekagón. Tieto tvary, teoretizovaný Dewar, mohli remeselníkom pomôcť navrhnúť presné a zložité rozsiahle geometrické inštalácie.

Aj keď dôkazy naznačujú, že metodika dlaždíc girih sa používa približne od roku 1200, odbornosť týchto návrhov sa začala výrazne zvyšovať v roku 1453 výstavbou svätyne Darb-i Imam.


Dejiny al-Masjid al-Haram a dejiny islamskej architektúry

Autentickú islamskú architektúru by sme mohli definovať ako typ architektúry, ktorej funkcie a v menšej miere aj forma sú inšpirované predovšetkým islamom. Islamská architektúra je rámcom pre implementáciu islamu. Uľahčuje, podporuje a stimuluje „Ibadah (uctievanie) činnosti moslimov, ktoré zasa zodpovedajú za každý moment ich pozemského života. Islamská architektúra môže vzniknúť iba pod záštitou islamského vnímania Boha, človeka, prírody, života, smrti a nasledujúceho života. Islamská architektúra by teda bola zariadeniami a zároveň fyzickým miestom realizácie islamského posolstva. V skutočnosti islamská architektúra predstavuje náboženstvo islamu, ktoré bolo v rukách moslimov prenesené do reality. Predstavuje tiež identitu islamskej kultúry a civilizácie.

Centrom islamskej architektúry je funkcia so všetkými svojimi dimenziami: telesnými, mozgovými a duchovnými. Forma oddelená od funkcie je bezvýznamná. To však v žiadnom prípade neznamená, že forma v islamskej architektúre nehrá žiadnu úlohu. Hrá síce významnú úlohu, ale jeho dôležitosť je podporná a dopĺňa a posilňuje funkciu. Forma je dôležitá, ale z hľadiska hodnoty a obsahu je vždy na druhom mieste funkcie a širokého záberu. Medzi ideálmi, ktoré podopierajú formu budov, a ideálmi, ktoré podopierajú ich funkciu, musí existovať najužší vzťah, s ktorým musia byť užívatelia budov v pohode. Roztržka alebo konflikt medzi nimi môže viesť k konfliktu niektorých ďalekosiahlych psychologických rozmerov v užívateľoch budov. Roly formy sa tak stanú ekvivalentnými úlohám funkcie.

V Múzeu architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke je zničený fragment dreveného stĺpa, ktorý použil Abdullah b. al-Zubayr pre Ka’bah.

Islamská architektúra podporuje jednotu v rozmanitosti, to znamená jednotu posolstva a účelu a rozmanitosť štýlov, metód a riešení. Iste, vďaka tomu je islamská architektúra taká relevantná a dynamická, taká konzistentná a prispôsobivá. Je to taký fascinujúci predmet štúdia, pretože to nie je o čistom umení a architektúre. Je to viac než to: ide o hľadanie islamskej ideológie a vyznania viery v práci. Ide o svedok mikrokozmu islamskej spoločnosti, civilizácie a kultúry. Islamská architektúra je o tom, že islam má manifestnú formu.

Identita a slovník islamskej architektúry sa vyvinuli ako prostriedok na naplnenie obáv moslimských spoločností. Islamská architektúra nikdy nebola samoúčelná. Bol to kontajner islamskej kultúry a civilizácie, ktorý odrážal kultúrnu identitu a úroveň kreatívneho a estetického vedomia moslimov. Architektúra by vo všeobecnosti mala byť ľuďom vždy k dispozícii. Nikdy to nebude naopak, to znamená, že architektúra by sa mala vyvinúť do záľuby alebo dobrodružstva v procese, ktorý sa vnucuje spoločnosti, pričom opúšťa alebo berie na ľahkú váhu identitu ľudí, kultúry a požiadavky ich každodenných bojov. Architektúra by v prvom rade mala zostať spojená s funkčnosťou. Nemalo by vybočiť zo svojho autentického charakteru a zablúdiť do sveta nadmernej invencie a abstrakcie.

Alfred Frazer, ako uvádza M. A. J. Beg, o zásadnej povahe islamskej architektúry povedal: „Architektúra islamu je výrazom náboženstva a jeho pohľadu na svet, a nie na pohľad konkrétnych ľudí alebo politického alebo ekonomického systému.“

Jeden z obrovských drevených stĺpov Ka’bahu, ktoré používa Abdullah b. al-Zubayr je stále zachovaný v Múzeu architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke

Titus Burckhardt preto napísal, že nie je prekvapujúce ani zvláštne, že najvzdialenejší prejav islamu ako náboženstva a civilizácie odráža svojim spôsobom to, čo je v ňom najvnútornejšie. Ten istý autor ďalej poznamenal: „Ak by niekto odpovedal na otázku„ čo je islam? “Jednoduchým poukázaním na jedno z majstrovských diel islamského umenia, ako je napríklad Cordova mešita alebo Ibn Tulun v Káhire alebo jedna z medresov v Samarqande ... takáto odpoveď, zhrnutie by bolo napriek tomu platné, pretože umenie islamu vyjadruje to, čo naznačuje jeho názov, a robí to bez pochybností.

Islamská architektúra znamená proces, v ktorom sú všetky fázy a aspekty rovnako dôležité. Je takmer nemožné identifikovať fázu alebo aspekt v tomto procese a považovať ho za dôležitejší ako ostatné. Proces islamskej architektúry začína správnym porozumením a víziou, ktoré vedú k správnemu zámeru. Pokračuje fázami plánovania, projektovania a budovania a končí dosiahnutím čistých výsledkov a toho, ako ich ľudia využívajú a majú z nich prospech. Islamská architektúra je kombináciou všetkých týchto faktorov, ktoré sú pretkané nitkami systému viery, zásad a étosu islamu. To, čo robí architektúru „islamskou“, je skôr jej metafyzický a duchovný rozmer, než fyzický a pozorovateľný rozmer.

Nápis na mramore registrujúci dátum stavby matafu (priestor okolo Ka’bahu, kde sa vykonáva rituál tawaf) počas vlády abbásovského kalifa al-Mustansira Billaha v roku 631 AH/ 1233 n. L. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke.

Nakoniec, islamská architektúra existuje kvôli existencii islamu. Navyše v mnohých ohľadoch slúži vznešeným cieľom islamu. Islamská architektúra slúži aj moslimom v tom, že im pomáha úspešne vykonávať svoju vicegerenciu (khilafah) misia na Zemi. Cieľom islamskej architektúry je skôr pomáhať moslimom, než im prekážať pri napĺňaní toho, pre čo boli vytvorené. Islamská architektúra sa prejavuje islamom. Islamská architektúra, islam a moslimovia sú neoddeliteľní. Islamská architektúra vznikla s príchodom islamu na svetovú scénu. Nikdy predtým neexistoval, aj keď národy, ktoré sa stali nástrojom formovania a udržiavania jeho nápadnej identity, žili tam, kde boli po stáročia, než prijali islam a vlastnili svoje vlastné kultúry a civilizácie. Štúdium islamskej architektúry sa v žiadnom prípade nemôže vymaniť z celkového rámca islamu: jeho genézy, histórie, étosu, svetonázoru, doktrín, zákonov a praktík. Islamská architektúra, ktorá je príkladom islamskej viery a učenia prostredníctvom hierarchie jej rozmanitých rolí a funkcií, vyvinula jedinečnú dušu. Túto dušu najlepšie rozpoznajú a ocenia tí, ktorých vlastný život je inšpirovaný a vedený tými istými zdrojmi, ktoré inšpirujú a vedú islamskú architektúru.

Preto nie je možné správne vnímať, vytvárať, chápať, študovať alebo dokonca používať islamskú architektúru oddelene od celkového rámca islamu. Každý pokus alebo metóda, ktorá popiera tento racionálny princíp, musí skončiť zlyhaním generujúcim v procese chyby a omyly. Existujúce štúdie o islamskej architektúre, uskutočnené moslimskými aj nemoslimskými vedcami, a spôsoby, akými sa dnes islamská architektúra vyučuje a prevádzkuje, sú najlepším svedectvom o zmätku, ktorý obklopuje tému islamskej architektúry.

Časť nápisu na mramore, ktorý datuje stavbu dverí a niektorých ďalších častí al-Masjid al-Haram do roku 804 AH/ 1401 n. L. Potom, čo boli poškodené požiarom za vlády sultána Mamlukiho al-Nasira Faraja b. Barquq. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke.

Isma’il al-Faruqi, s odkazom na význam islamu pre architektúru, vhodne uviedol: „V celom moslimskom svete je architektonická jednota aspektom jednoty ummah pod islamom ... Charakteristiky, ktoré tvoria jednotu architektonických štýlov v celom moslimskom svete, sú poskytnuté alebo inšpirované islamom ... Bude to hrozný nedostatok, ak islam zanedbá vplyv na architektúru svojich národov. Rovnako ako všetky ostatné výtvarné umenia je architektúra estetickým vyjadrením moslima, pretože má jedinečný a zreteľný pohľad na realitu, priestor a čas, históriu, ummah a o jeho organickom vzťahu k nemu. Islam je skutočne komplexným náboženstvom, svetonázorom a kultúrou. Jeho vplyv musí zasahovať do celého ľudského života. Určoval štýl oblečenia, stravovania, spánku, socializácie, voľného času a rekreácie. Ako by mohlo vynechať určenie biotopu človeka? Nie, stalo sa a dokonca posilnilo svoj vplyv silou zákona, pokiaľ ide o všetky tieto záležitosti. ”

Pokiaľ ide o al-Masjid al-Haram, ako najväčší náboženský fenomén a do istej miery zodpovedajúcu architektonickú realitu, jeho prípad bol vždy výnimočný. Ako posvätný predmet ho musia všetci moslimovia zasvätiť duchovne i fyzicky - aj keď ten druhý musí za každých okolností zostať podriadený prvému. Ako už bolo spomenuté, história a vývoj mešity v mnohých ohľadoch predstavovala históriu a vývoj islamskej kultúry a civilizácie. Pretože to bol inštitucionálny zázrak, štruktúra a architektonický priestor, al-Masjid al-Haram taktiež stelesňoval a odrážal do značnej miery históriu a vývoj identity islamskej architektúry. Súbežne s rozvojom Al-Masjid al-Haram získavalo islamské umenie a architektúra aj svoje ochranné známky, pričom prelomilo a nakoniec ovládlo svetové kultúrne a civilizačné scény. Dá sa teda odvodiť, že tieto tri: al-Masjid al-Haram, islamská civilizácia a islamská architektúra, postupovali spoločne, pričom jeden ovplyvňoval a bol ovplyvňovaný ostatnými. Dôkladné štúdium ktoréhokoľvek z nich znamená štúdium veľkého množstva ďalších dvoch.

Ďalší nápis na mramorovej doske nájdený na stene kolonády alebo arkády Al-Masjid al-Haram dokumentujúci niektoré príspevky mamulského sultána al-Nasira Faraja b. Barquq k vývoju mešity. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke.

Rovnako ako vždy existuje sféra skutočnej islamskej architektúry, al-Masjid al-Haram taktiež stelesňuje, prispôsobuje a uľahčuje pojmy islamského univerzalizmu, trvalosti, odolnosti a globálnej charizmy a príťažlivosti. Náboženské a civilizačné prekážky, ktoré boli v minulosti prítomné, aj keď boli schopné predbežne ovplyvniť a spomaliť uvedené očakávané výkony mešity, nedokázali ich úplne znemožniť, a tým menej zrušiť. Od chvíle, keď bol al-Masjid al-Haram vytvorený, bol určený pre celé ľudstvo a pre jednu a jedinú pravdu a jej nasledovníkov. Bolo to epicentrum makroislamského duchovného sveta a ťažisko na obežnej dráhe islamských duchovných zážitkov a túžob každého milovníka a nasledovníka pravdy. Z toho vyplýva, že pokiaľ ide o architektúru, pre al-Masjid al-Haram budú vždy najvhodnejšie iba tie najkvalitnejšie a najschopnejšie nápady a riešenia. Podpora regionálnych alebo miestnych na úkor globálnych, individuálnych alebo konkrétnych na úkor univerzálnych, prechodných na úkor trvalých a fyzických na úkor metafyzických, nikdy nebude skutočne kompatibilná s vnútornými charakter a funkciu al-Masjid al-Haram, ani nebude skutočne apelovať na väčšinu jej používateľov, ktorí sa tlačia do jej parametrov z celého sveta a predstavujú všetky možné kultúrne, sociálne, ekonomické a politické pozadia. Rozumie sa, že potrebná forma architektúry pre al-Masjid al-Haram je taká, ktorá vždy predstavuje najlepší, najpútavejší, najúčinnejší a najcennejší architektonický štýl. Čokoľvek, čo je kratšie ako najlepšie a najfunkčnejšie, bude neadekvátne. Je to tak preto, že tento typ architektúry uspokojuje potreby najlepšej a najzávažnejšej mešity na Zemi v areáli najsvätejšej svätyne Mekky, ktorá nie je náhodou najobľúbenejším kúskom zeme, a to tak Bohu, ako aj Jeho posla (pbuh) a ktorý nakoniec zdedili najlepší ľudia alebo komunita s najlepším a najvýznamnejším životným poslaním v histórii ľudstva (Alu 'Imran, 3: 110).

Mapa al-Masjid al-Haram a niektorých z jeho bezprostredného okolia z osmanskej éry. Od: Mirza, Mi’raj, Atlas Khara’it Makkah al-Mukarramah.

Pre takú silnú pravdu, ako príklad, hneď ako „Abdullah b. al-Zubayr, iba päťdesiatpäť rokov po smrti Proroka (pbuh), sa pustil do rekonštrukcie Ka'bahu a rozšírenia jeho al-Masjid al-Haram, boli použité zlaté pásy na ozdobu dverí tých prvých. Kľúče boli tiež vyrobené zo zlata. Čierny kameň bol umiestnený v striebornom ráme. Podľa niektorých správ „Abdullah b. al-Zubayr bol prvým, kto obliekol Ka’bah hodvábom, aj keď niektoré ďalšie správy naznačujú, že to mohol urobiť al-Hajjaj b. Yusuf asi o desať rokov neskôr ako súčasť umajjovského kalifa „Abd al-Malik b. Marwanove reštaurátorské práce na mešite. Za podporu strechy portiku mešity „Abdullah b. al-Zubayr použil mramorové stĺpy, čo bolo po prvýkrát v histórii mešity.

Po smrti „Abdullaha b. al-Zubayr, kalif ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan zdvihol stenu mešity, úplne ju zastrešil teakovým drevom, ktoré bolo obzvlášť cenené pre svoju trvanlivosť, odolnosť voči vode a ďalšími štrukturálnymi vlastnosťami, a vyzdobil hlavné mesto každého mramorového stĺpa päťdesiatimi. mithqals zlata (jeden mithqal sa rovná 4,25 gramu). Mramorové stĺpy boli odoslané z Egypta. Vyložili ich v meste Jeddah a odtiaľ ich odtiahli na kolesách do Mekky.

Al-Masjid al-Haram počas prvej saudskej expanzie. Väčšina hlavných architektonických prvkov a vlastností mešity bola ešte z osmanského obdobia. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke.

Je tiež potrebné poznamenať, že pred kalifátom „Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, ľudia sa modlili vo vnútri mešity v priamych líniách (sufuf) iba na severovýchodnej strane Ka’bahu za maqamom Ibrahimom (Ibrahimova stanica), kde je kolonáda od kalifátu „Uthman b. ‘Affan bol postavený na tento účel a počas modlitieb nechal zvyšné tri strany prázdne. V čase kalifátu „Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, všetky štyri strany Ka'bahu sa začali používať na kongregačné modlitby s modlitebnými líniami (sufuf) obiehajúc Ka’bah. Takáto inovácia bola prijatá ľuďmi v dobrej viere. Okamžite si získalo úplnú dôveryhodnosť kvôli mnohým popredným učencom, ktorí vtedy bývali v Mekke a pravidelne sa modlili v Al-Masjid al-Haram, ale nikdy nevzniesli námietku proti tomuto javu. Hlavným dôvodom tohto kreatívneho riešenia bola skutočnosť, že modlenie sa zborových modlitieb iba na jednej strane Ka'bahu sa stáva neudržateľným kvôli neustále sa stupňujúcemu preplneniu.

Keď ďalší umajjovský kalif, al-Walid b. „Abd al-Malik, asi o pätnásť rokov neskôr, sa rozhodol rozšíriť al-Masjid al-Haram, veci sa stále dramaticky zlepšovali. Napríklad bolo hlásené, že al-Walid kedysi poslal do Mekky 30 000 dinárov so žiadosťou o výrobu zlatých plechov. Listy boli potom nanesené na dvere Ka'bah, jeho vnútorné stĺpiky, rohy a na jeho výlevku (mizab). Al-Walid bol prvý, kto potiahol hlavné telo Ka’bahu zlatom. Neskôr, keď bolo zamestnanie dokončené, navštívil Mekku na púť Hadždž a sám sa pozrel na pracovný výkon. Pokiaľ ide o al-Masjid al-Haram, historici uviedli, že al-Walid zhodil to, čo predtým postavil jeho otec Abd al-Malik, a potom urobil kolonády alebo arkády mešity pevnejšie a odolnejšie. Pravdepodobne prestaval to, čo zničil z predchádzajúcej práce svojho otca, a potom pridal ďalšiu arkádu, ktorá pobehovala po Ka'bahu. Za účelom obnovy al-Walid dovážal mramorové stĺpy z Egypta a Sýrie, dvoch popredných centier rýchlo rastúcej islamskej civilizácie. Na kolesách ich previezol do Mekky. Urobil tak s najväčšou pravdepodobnosťou z prístavného mesta Jeddah, kde by stĺpce mali skôr doraziť po mori. Kolonády boli zastrešené teakovým drevom, ktoré bolo nádherne zdobené. Koruny alebo veľké písmená stĺpcov boli potiahnuté zlatými plechmi. Interiér mešity bol tiež spevnený mramorom a podlaha bola pokrytá rovnakým materiálom. Stena mešity dostala po prvý raz krenelácie, čiže melóny. Nachádzali sa tu aj výklenky a okná, na vrchu ktorých predných strán bola na dekoračné účely použitá mozaika. Mozaika bola rovnako aplikovaná na horné časti fasád oblúkov, ktoré boli podopreté stĺpmi a na ktorých spočívala strecha. Vedci sa zhodujú v tom, že v prípade Al-Masjid al-Haramu išlo o vôbec prvé použitie mozaiky ako dekoratívneho média. Navyše, počas vlády al-Walida b. Abd al-Malik, muži a ženy boli oddelení tawaf (obchádzka Ka’bahu). Rozhodnutie implementoval kalifský guvernér Mekky Khalid b. Abdullah al-Qasri. Na každom rohu Ka’bahu boli strážcovia s bičmi, ktorí monitorovali a presadzovali edikt.

Formovanie mramoru z minbaru alebo kazateľnice Al-Masjida al-Harama z obdobia osmanského sultána Sulaymana, známeho ako Veľkolepý a Kanuni, ktorý bol jedným z najväčších osmanských sultánov. Bol prvým osmanským vládcom, ktorý architektonicky významne zasiahol do Al-Masjid al-Haram. Počas jeho vlády bol drevený minbar nahradený veľkou stavbou mramoru, ako boli tie, ktoré zdobili početné cisárske mešity na osmanských územiach. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke. Ďalší mramorový výlisok z minbaru alebo kazateľnice al-Masjida al-Harama pochádzajúci z osmanského sultána Sulaymana, známeho ako Magnificent a Kanuni, ktorý bol jedným z najväčších osmanských sultánov. Bol prvým osmanským vládcom, ktorý architektonicky významne zasiahol do Al-Masjid al-Haram. Počas jeho vlády bol drevený minbar nahradený veľkou stavbou mramoru, ako boli tie, ktoré zdobili početné cisárske mešity na osmanských územiach. S láskavým dovolením Múzeum architektúry dvoch svätých mešít v Mekke.

Všeobecne povedané, al-Walid bol veľkým staviteľom-skutočne jedným z najväčších v histórii islamskej civilizácie-, v dôsledku čoho vývoj rozpoznateľnej identity islamskej architektúry vstúpil do svojej záverečnej fázy počas svojho pôsobenia vo funkcii kalifa. Mohlo byť dokonca dokončené pred jeho koncom, pretože otázky voľného pohybu a výmeny umeleckých a architektonických myšlienok, stavebných materiálov, technológie a strojárstva, ľudských zdrojov a bohatstva sa už stávajú vzácnosťou, ale skôr pravidlom a spôsobom života na domácej i medzinárodnej úrovni. Tak rád staval a staval a staval majetky, že v čase, keď sa ľudia stretávali, sa jeden druhého pýtali na stavby a stavby, čo odrážalo večný civilizačný kánon, že ľudia sa riadia náboženstvom (vieroukou, hodnotami a záujmami) svojich vládcov. Al-Walid’s time in power may perhaps be summed up in the following words: conquests, wealth generated mainly from the former, and construction.

To many, therefore, al-Walid has become a symbol of Islamic architecture and its history. He is officially, so to speak, regarded as the first in the history of Islam who established the subject of mosque decoration as a permanent constituent of Islamic art and architecture. The greatest masterpieces that he erected or significantly expanded during his lifetime were the Great Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, the Great Mosque in San’a’, al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem built next to his father’s Dome of the Rock, and the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah. For example, when completed, the Great Mosque of Damascus was looked upon as a new wonder of the world. It was even likened by some people to a palace from Paradise (jannah). Some used to say that having witnessed the beauty of their Mosque, the residents of Damascus were to yearn ever more and more intensely than anybody else on earth for Paradise.

The crown of a granite pillar from a colonnade or an arcade of al-Masjid al-Haram dating back to the Ottoman period. Courtesy of the Museum of the architecture of the two Holy Mosques in Makkah. The crown of a marble pillar from a colonnade or an arcade of al-Masjid al-Haram dating back to the Ottoman period. Courtesy of the Museum of the architecture of the two Holy Mosques in Makkah.

It stands to reason, therefore, that Caliph al-Walid’s architectural contributions did not represent sheer phases in a still tentative evolution, but were, in their quality as art, unsurpassable masterpieces. They signified the beginning of the fruition of the formative period of Islamic art and architecture that commenced the moment Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) set foot on the Madinah soil. What followed thereafter were the periods of further refinement, enrichment, diversification and both technical and artistic sophistication. Islamic art and architecture were finally coming of age.

Indeed, historians were fully aware of the fact that al-Walid was bent on leaving a lasting mark on the architecture of both the Ka’bah and al-Masjid al-Haram. Therefore, when they dwelled on his case, they did not hesitate to articulate such expressions and terms as “the first person who”, “nobody before him”, “more solid and durable”, etc. As al-Qu’aiti observed, al-Walid’s mission as regards the architecture of al-Masjid al-Haram was a demonstration of his own high standards of satisfaction. He wanted the same standards to be applied to the holiest places in Islam, more than to anything else.

Following the Umayyads the ‘Abbasids arrived on the Muslim civilizational and architectural scenes. However, basically, they continued the traditions of their predecessors, retaining and further enhancing the form and function of al-Masjid al-Haram. The architectural regularity and consistency of the Haram were ensured. In the process, both the universal and permanent character of Islamic architecture, and the role and significance of time-space factors in it, were duly respected and observed. Although an “Abbasid style” in Islamic art and architecture was emerging, they never tried to impose it as such onto the architecture of al-Masjid al-Haram because the latter was a product of different circumstances and factors. Rather, they submitted to the universalism, permanence and constancy of Islamic architecture which al-Masjid al-Haram with its long history and multi-functionalism was symbolizing, putting the regional aspects of the “Abbasid style” into the service of the former. They thus significantly enriched the world of Islamic architecture and its evolution. They did so, mainly, by a fresh approach in amalgamating the permanent spirit of Islamic architecture, that is, the embodiment of the Islamic wisdom, morals and standards throughout the lengthy architectural processes cum the actualization and fulfillment of its multi-tiered purpose and function: physical, mental and spiritual, with the practical implications of the socio-economic, ecological, technological and cultural considerations. Indeed, impressing a localized architectural style on a different locality is a serious failing in architecture. Equally erroneous is to bereave architecture of its metaphysical dimensions, or to barter the permanent and universal for the impermanent and finite in its vast domains.

The last three surahs or chapters of the Qur’an (al-Ikhlas, al-Falaq and al-Nas) engraved during the Ottoman period on a molding of al-Shumaysi stone and thus embellishing a part of al-Masjid al-Haram. Courtesy of the Museum of the architecture of the two Holy Mosques in Makkah.

The most prominent features of the ‘Abbasid al-Masjid al-Haram expansions, on the whole, were: importing marble pillars from Syria and Egypt, making use of the available quality local building materials and expertise, increasing and enhancing the facilities of the Mosque and thereby boosting its performances, strengthening the environmental, sustainability and aesthetic aspects of the Mosque, improving the Mosque’s durability and comfort, diversifying the language of Mosque architecture by, for example, introducing the notion of minaret, and inscribing on some strategic locations of the walls particular historical details of the Mosque expansions, and improving the general wellbeing of both the local population and pilgrims. As a result, al-Masjid al-Haram, above all after the massive expansion by ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi, whose cost stood approximately at 4,578,750 Dinars, needed no new all-purpose rebuilding until the era of the Ottoman Turks, more than eight centuries later. Even then, however, no significantly extra breadth and operational capacity were added to the Mosque’s configuration. The Mosque was also partially reconstructed during the Mamluki era, about more than six centuries after Caliph al-Mahdi, but only because of a great damage to some of the Mosque’s arcades which was caused by a fire. In essence, therefore, there was no significant expansion from ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mahdi until the modern Saudi era there were only renovations and reconstructions.

Some decorative floral patterns on a molding of al-Shumaysi stone dating back to the Ottoman era. Courtesy of the Museum of the architecture of the two Holy Mosques in Makkah.

Undeniably, the epochs in question, at the center of which stood the majestic phenomenon of al-Masjid al-Haram, displayed that Muslims had quickly become competent and confident builders. They increasingly felt that they had what it takes to match the architectural demand necessitated by the rapid development of Islamic eclectic culture and civilization. It was becoming more and more obvious that Islamic architecture was not only the basis, or the framework, of Islamic civilization, but also its quintessence and engine of growth. There were no longer serious talks about Muslim architectural inferiority to the architectural legacies of the Romans, Persians and others. The Muslim architectural destiny lay in their own hands. This emerging attitude was unmistakably embodied by Caliph al-Mahdi’s response to a serious dilemma posed by an aspect of his al-Masjid al-Haram expansion enterprise: “I have to accomplish this expansion even if I had to spend all the money available in the government’s treasuries (buyut al-amwal).”

Moreover, not only that Muslims were then increasingly borrowing less from others, but also were they exporting more and more to some of the newly acquired regions. Exporting operations, generally, took place from some of the cultural and civilizational centers of the Islamic state in Syria, Palestine, Iraq and even the Hijaz region. The flourishing language of the Islamic architectural identity that had evolved chiefly in the said centers was one of the things often exported. Some of the geographical regions where the newly evolved language of Islamic architecture was exported, partly or completely, were al-Andalus or Islamic Spain, Tunis, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Nishapur and Afrasiyab (near Samarkand). The exported influences were either of the Umayyad or ‘Abbasid complexion, or were a synthesis of both.

In his paper titled "Islamization and Arabization in al-Andalus: a General View", Anwar G. Chejne stressed that when the Muslims confronted the Christian-Spanish society in al-Andalus, the latter was one of those territories seen as underdeveloped culturally. Thus, the Muslims of al-Andalus turned not inwards for self-development, but outwards towards the Muslim East for religious and cultural inspiration and guidance. The Muslims in al-Andalus “orientalized the court and administration, imported talent of all sorts from the (Muslim) East, and built an enormous number of mosques, public baths, palaces and summer homes on oriental models.”

A section of al-Masjid al-Haram built by the Ottomans before it was demolished as part of the latest and grandest Saudi expansion of the Mosque.

After the first Abbasid period, when new provincial dynasties in different parts of the vast Islamic state started to emerge, breaking away from the Abbasid dominance and that of the cities of Baghdad and Samarra, a new impetus was created for further enhancing the vocabulary and profundity of Islamic architecture. This was an inevitable course of events, though, firstly, due to the emergence of new and diffused cultural centers which brought some new ethnic groups and new geographical areas to the fore secondly, due to a new economic drive entailed in the new states and kingdoms and lastly, due to some new protagonists and patrons who had a remarkable passion, pioneering aspirations and a strong political will. In other words, the same forces that led to the creation of the identity of Islamic architecture continued to enrich, advance and sustain it after the first and through the second Abbasid period and beyond. It is thus appropriate that the drastic weakening of the Abbasid central rule and the beginning of the break-up of its many territories serve as a dim demarcation line between the first unified and integrated, and the second decentralized and disintegrated Abbasid periods.

As a final point, it needs to be emphasized that the Ottoman Turks while outstandingly reconstructing al-Masjid al-Haram which then firmly endured for about four centuries until the Saudi period, apart from authenticating and reinforcing all the accrued and from the earlier times recognized architectural meanings and qualities connected with the Holy Mosque, also introduced what could be dabbed as the concept of community architecture – definitely as a product of their own age and of the prevalent level of a broader Islamic civilizational consciousness. This assertion could easily be gleaned from the integrative approach the Ottomans adopted from beginning till end while dealing with the Mosque rebuilding undertaking, from what roles were designated for and were played by the engineers, architects, scholars, officials and the general public in the process, and from how seemingly they responded to all the architectural, engineering, ecological and aesthetic requirements integrating then their responses into effective and engaging design solutions.

Some people still believe that the Saudi government should have been more sensitive towards the architectural history of al-Masjid al-Haram, addressing more judiciously the heritage concerns raised both by experts and ordinary people.

The Ottoman Turks appear as though their motto – at least in the case of al-Masjid al-Haram – was: architecture for the people and by the people, and that architecture needed to connect to the masses and communities for which it was primarily meant, and whose needs and problems it was supposed to fulfill as well as solve. Wider social participation in the architectural processes has also been implied. Surely, these are important at all times because, as a result, in the end a true humanistic approach to architectural design should be developed, whereby people ought to be put at the center of an architect’s thoughts and a design’s objectives. Islamic architecture, it goes without saying, must not be seen as an elitist enterprise. It is a scientific as well as an epistemological pursuit that aims to ensure the welfare of all Muslims, in the process reflecting the essential spirit and universal value system of Islam. Islamic architecture should be practical in the sense that it is affordable, accessible, functional and should tackle the issues and problems concerning all Muslims. It further must not be discriminatory, impractical and utopian.

It is the people, ultimately, who will suffer if architectural outputs by designers, architects and structural engineers are substandard, and will benefit if the opposite is true. The people as architecture users and patrons, it follows, are very important stakeholders in architecture and so, a very reliable source of architectural evaluation. They thus need to be afforded proper avenues and opportunities to express their opinions, and most importantly, their views should be listened to seriously. The people and architecture professionals ought to forge an alliance steeped in mutual understanding, respect and goodwill, and which will be driven towards achieving a greater social cause. The seeds of such an alliance should be planted at the earliest stages of a community’s general educational system, and its more advanced patterns later promulgated within the specialized branches of learning, especially as part of the philosophical dispositions of those branches’ curricula which are most responsible for shaping attitudes and etiquettes.


MIT Architecture

Islamic architecture is not only religious architecture. Planned cities, palaces, residences, caravanserais, markets and bazaars, castles and citadels, hospitals and palaces of justice, waterworks and gardens, watchtowers and bridges, in addition to a number of building types that straddle the religious and the profane realms have often subsumed and reflected certain “Islamic” qualities in their forms, functions, and meanings. Their sum total is what we can call civic architecture.

This course will review select examples of civic architecture from across the Islamic world from the seventh to the twenty-first century. It will analyze their visual, spatial, and structural design and occupation strategies. It will also consider the urban, social, religious, and political factors that lent them their particular characters and assess how they coalesced into types under the umbrella of Islamic architecture. In our investigations, we will not only use modern studies, but we will try to see the buildings and their settings through the experiences of their original users by consulting a variety of primary sources from poetry to travel reports.

The class is open to both graduates and undergraduates. Class requirements are active participation in the discussions, three short papers (8-10 pp) one of which can be an analytical design project, and a class presentation on one of these papers/projects for undergraduates. Graduate students may substitute some or all papers by a research paper on a topic to be discussed with the instructor and presented in class. No final exam.

Required Texts: George Michell, ed. Architecture of the Islamic World: Its History and Social Meaning, London: Thames and Hudson, 1978 [reprint 1984] John D. Hoag Islamic Architecture (History of World Architecture) (Phaidon, 2004, Paperback).


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Islamská architektúra

Muhammad Ali mosque, Cairo ©

Architecture is one of the greatest Islamic art forms. An Islamic style is seen in mosques but also in Muslim houses and gardens.

Some of the typical features are:

  • It's hidden - another term is "the architecture of the veil"
  • A traditional Islamic house is built around a courtyard, and shows only a wall with no windows to the street outside
  • It thus protects the family, and family life from the people outside, and the harsh environment of many Islamic lands - it's a private world
  • Concentration on the interior rather than the outside of a building - the common Islamic courtyard structure provides a space that is both outside, and yet within the building

Another key idea, also used in town planning, is of a sequence of spaces.

  • The mechanical structure of the building is de-emphasised
  • Buildings do not have a dominant direction
  • Large traditional houses will often have a complex double structure that allows men to visit without running any risk of meeting the women of the family
  • Houses often grow as the family grows - they develop according to need, not to a grand design

Buildings are often highly decorated and colour is often a key feature.

But the decoration is reserved for the inside. Most often the only exterior parts to be decorated will be the entrance and the dome.

Religious buildings in particular will often use geometry to symbolic effect.


Early Islamic World

The architectural style of the Islamic Empire spread throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, Spain, and parts of Asia during the Middle Ages. Many of the elements were inspired by the Islamic religion.


A Mosque with Minarets and Domes
Source: Wikimedia Commons. User: Noumenon

    Arches - Arches were commonly used in Islamic architecture. One unique type of arch was the horseshoe arch which is named for its distinct horseshoe-like shape at the top of the arch. Another popular type of arch was the ogee arch. This arch had a pointed top which gave the arch strength and an interesting look.


An Ogee Arch with
Calligraphy Decorations

by Daderot. 2010

    Mosques - The most important building in the Islamic Empire was the mosque. This is where Muslims go to worship and pray. Mosques varied in size and decoration, but had some similar characteristics including a minaret, a prayer room, a courtyard, and a niche in one wall to show the direction of Mecca. Some famous mosques include Al Haram Mosque in Mecca, Al Nabawi Mosque in Medina (Saudi Arabia), and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.


Alhambra Palace in Spain
by Jebulon. 2014.

Gardens and Courtyards

Courtyards and gardens were an important part of early Islamic architecture. Many buildings had a courtyard or garden where people could relax. Fountains were common in these areas to help cool people down from the dry desert heat.

  • Arabesque - One type of decoration is called arabesque. Arabesque used intricate patterns that looked like plants, leaves, and flowers.
  • Geometric patterns - Another type of pattern used geometric shapes of different types to form colorful and interesting repeating designs.
  • Calligraphy - Arabic words written in calligraphy were another popular form of decoration. Often verses from the Quran or famous religious sayings were used.


Arabesque Example by Jebulon. 2012.

Architektúra

Ottoman mosques and other architecture first emerged in the cities of Bursa and Edirne in the 14 th and 15 th centuries, developing from earlier Seljuk Turk architecture, with additional influences from Byzantine, Persian, and Islamic Mamluk traditions. Sultan Mehmed II would later even fuse European traditions in his rebuilding programs at Istanbul in the 19th century. Byzantine styles as seen in the Hagia Sophia served as particularly important models for Ottoman mosques, such as the mosque constructed by Sinan. Building reached its peak in the 16th century when Ottoman architects mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces surmounted by seemingly weightless yet incredibly massive domes, and achieved perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as articulated light and shadow. They incorporated vaults, domes, square dome plans, slender corner minarets, and columnsinto their mosques, which became sanctuaries of transcendently aesthetic and technical balance.

Kulliye, a complex of buildings centered around a mosque and managed within a single institution, became a particular focus of imperial patronage. Turkish building projects in Constantinople – later renamed Istanbul – prioritized these complexes focusing on a mosque that combined religious, funerary, educational, and financial institutions.

Despite variations, Ottoman architecture remained fairly uniform throughout the empire. Examples of the high classical period can be found in Turkey, the Balkans, Hungary, Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, where mosques, bridges, fountains, and schools were built. A particularly fine example of an Ottoman mosque is the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, built between 1568 and 1574. Flanked by four tall minarets and crowned by a monumental dome, the mosque also has a remarkable interior, which is lit by a multitude of tiny windows that allow the tiled walls to sparkle in the interplay of shadow and light .


Introduction to mosque architecture

From Indonesia to the United Kingdom, the mosque in its many forms is the quintessential Islamic building. The mosque, masjid in Arabic, is the Muslim gathering place for prayer. Masjid simply means “place of prostration.” Though most of the five daily prayers prescribed in Islam can take place anywhere, all men are required to gather together at the mosque for the Friday noon prayer.

Mosques are also used throughout the week for prayer, study, or simply as a place for rest and reflection. The main mosque of a city, used for the Friday communal prayer, is called a jami masjid, literally meaning “Friday mosque,” but it is also sometimes called a congregational mosque in English. The style, layout, and decoration of a mosque can tell us a lot about Islam in general, but also about the period and region in which the mosque was constructed.

Diagram reconstruction of the Prophet’s House, Medina, Saudi Arabia

The home of the Prophet Muhammad is considered the first mosque. His house, in Medina in modern-day Saudi Arabia, was a typical 7th-century Arabian style house, with a large courtyard surrounded by long rooms supported by columns. This style of mosque came to be known as a hypostyle mosque, meaning “many columns.” Most mosques built in Arab lands utilized this style for centuries.

Common features

The architecture of a mosque is shaped most strongly by the regional traditions of the time and place where it was built. As a result, style, layout, and decoration can vary greatly. Nevertheless, because of the common function of the mosque as a place of congregational prayer, certain architectural features appear in mosques all over the world.

Sahn (courtyard)

The most fundamental necessity of congregational mosque architecture is that it be able to hold the entire male population of a city or town (women are welcome to attend Friday prayers, but not required to do so). To that end congregational mosques must have a large prayer hall. In many mosques this is adjoined to an open courtyard, called a sahn. Within the courtyard one often finds a fountain, its waters both a welcome respite in hot lands, and important for the ablutions (ritual cleansing) done before prayer.

Mihrab & minbar, Mosque of Sultan Hassan, Cairo, 1356-63 (photo: Dave Berkowitz, CC BY 2.0)

Mihrab (niche)

Mihrab, Great Mosque of Cordoba, c. 786 (photo: Bongo Vongo, CC BY-SA 2.0)

Another essential element of a mosque’s architecture is a mihrab—a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, towards which all Muslims pray. Mecca is the city in which the Prophet Muhammad was born, and the home of the most important Islamic site, the Kaaba. The direction of Mecca is called the qibla, and so the wall in which the mihrab is set is called the qibla wall. No matter where a mosque is, its mihrab indicates the direction of Mecca (or as near that direction as science and geography were able to place it). Therefore, a mihrab in India will be to the west, while a one in Egypt will be to the east. A mihrab is usually a relatively shallow niche, as in the example from Egypt, above. In the example from Spain, shown right, the mihrab’s niche takes the form of a small room, this is more rare.

Minaret (tower)

One of the most visible aspects of mosque architecture is the minaret, a tower adjacent or attached to a mosque, from which the call to prayer is announced.

Mimar Sinan, Minaret, Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, 1558

Minarets take many different forms—from the famous spiral minaret of Samarra, to the tall, pencil minarets of Ottoman Turkey. Not solely functional in nature, the minaret serves as a powerful visual reminder of the presence of Islam.

Qubba (dome)

Most mosques also feature one or more domes, called qubba in Arabic. While not a ritual requirement like the mihrab, a dome does possess significance within the mosque—as a symbolic representation of the vault of heaven. The interior decoration of a dome often emphasizes this symbolism, using intricate geometric, stellate, or vegetal motifs to create breathtaking patterns meant to awe and inspire. Some mosque types incorporate multiple domes into their architecture (as in the Ottoman Süleymaniye Mosque pictured at the top of the page), while others only feature one. In mosques with only a single dome, it is invariably found surmounting the qibla wall, the holiest section of the mosque. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia (not pictured) has three domes: one atop the minaret, one above the entrance to the prayer hall, and one above the qibla wall.

Because it is the directional focus of prayer, the qibla wall, with its mihrab and minbar, is often the most ornately decorated area of a mosque. The rich decoration of the qibla wall is apparent in this image of the mihrab and minbar of the Mosque of Sultan Hasan in Cairo, Egypt (see image higher on the page).

Furnishings

Mosque lamp, 14th century, Egypt or Syria, blown glass, enamel, gilding, 31.8 x 23.2 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

There are other decorative elements common to most mosques. For instance, a large calligraphic frieze or a cartouche with a prominent inscription often appears above the mihrab. In most cases the calligraphic inscriptions are quotations from the Qur’an, and often include the date of the building’s dedication and the name of the patron. Another important feature of mosque decoration are hanging lamps, also visible in the photograph of the Sultan Hasan mosque. Light is an essential feature for mosques, since the first and last daily prayers occur before the sun rises and after the sun sets. Before electricity, mosques were illuminated with oil lamps. Hundreds of such lamps hung inside a mosque would create a glittering spectacle, with soft light emanating from each, highlighting the calligraphy and other decorations on the lamps’ surfaces. Although not a permanent part of a mosque building, lamps, along with other furnishings like carpets, formed a significant—though ephemeral—aspect of mosque architecture.

Mosque patronage

Mihrab, 1354–55, just after the Ilkhanid period, Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Iran, polychrome glazed tiles, 343.1 x 288.7 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Most historical mosques are not stand-alone buildings. Many incorporated charitable institutions like soup kitchens, hospitals, and schools. Some mosque patrons also chose to include their own mausoleum as part of their mosque complex. The endowment of charitable institutions is an important aspect of Islamic culture, due in part to the third pillar of Islam, which calls for Muslims to donate a portion of their income to the poor.

The commissioning of a mosque would be seen as a pious act on the part of a ruler or other wealthy patron, and the names of patrons are usually included in the calligraphic decoration of mosques. Such inscriptions also often praise the piety and generosity of the patron. For instance, the mihrab now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, bears the inscription:

And he [the Prophet], blessings and peace be upon him, said: “Whoever builds a mosque for God, even the size of a sand-grouse nest, based on piety, [God will build for him a palace in Paradise].”

The patronage of mosques was not only a charitable act therefore, but also, like architectural patronage in all cultures, an opportunity for self-promotion. The social services attached the mosques of the Ottoman sultans are some of the most extensive of their type. In Ottoman Turkey the complex surrounding a mosque is called a kulliye. The kulliye of the Mosque of Sultan Suleyman, in Istanbul, is a fine example of this phenomenon, comprising a soup kitchen, a hospital, several schools, public baths, and a caravanserai (similar to a hostel for travelers). The complex also includes two mausoleums for Sultan Suleyman and his family members.


Islam in architecture

The Shah Mosque or Masjed-e Shah (Persian: مسجد امام), recently known as Imam Mosque is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran standing in south side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square.

Built during the Safavids period, it is an excellent example of Islamic architecture of Iran, and regarded as the masterpiece of Persian Architecture. The Shah Mosque of Esfahan is one of the everlasting masterpieces of architecture in Iran and all over the world. It is registered along with the Naghsh-i Jahan Square as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its construction began in 1611, and its splendor is mainly due to the beauty of its seven-color mosaic tiles and calligraphic inscriptions.

The mosque is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 20,000 rials banknote.[1]

Dvqaby both sides of the entrance is located kilim designs its worshipers who prays. More spatial volume of interest in this view, sometimes on a blue Drkhshansh case becomes almost ethereal, quite on the field is dominant in conflict with the elegant royal palace, the incredible superiority of religion over secular power and the fundamental importance of religion in the lives of city shows. Jlvkhan is facing north, as the field was necessary, but since the altar should be New Jersey (ie, northeast to the southwest) to avoid being Qnas taste and great accuracy was necessary. Successfully solved this problem. High atrial Jlvkhan person into which features monuments of ancient Iran from the time. This is a circular atrium, and hence any direction and can not be like Pashnhay built on its spin axis. Arch long corridor to the North porch opens from the dark depths of human Nag•hanm yard sees bright sun. The head of the yard is large bedchamber, portal to another world focused on the glory and power. If the glory and grandeur of the scene color head and the dome was already stunning, stunning was repeated, repeated melodic elements of construction, symmetrical Taqnmahay, Ayvanhay balanced, calm and ablution large pool of homogeneous color poster that surround the widespread, state dome elegant and impressive, and slightly bulbous shape, located on a long stem, simple and has a very clear plan and Gvyast without any carrier or any Pshtbnd.
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Architektonický

The Seljuqs and the Safavids founded the Shah Mosque as a channel through which they could express themselves with their numerous architectural techniques. The four- iwan format, finalized by the Seljuq dynasty, firmly established the courtyard facade of such mosques as more important than their exterior ones. During the Seljuq rule, as Islamic mysticism was on the rise in the region, the four-iwan arrangement came to be interpreted as seeking true meaning within the appearance. Their presence can serve the sole purpose of being the passageway between the material world and that of the spiritual. It must also be noted that glazed brickwork and tiling had little appeal to the Seljuqs as they primarily favored the distinct tranquil color of turquoise blue.

Facing northwards, the mosque’s portal to the Maidan is usually under shadow but since it has been coated with radiant tile mosaics it glitters with a predominantly blue light of extraordinary intensity. The ornamentation of the structures is utterly traditional, as it recaptures the classic Iranian motifs of symbolic appeal for fruitfulness and effectiveness. Within the symmetrical arcades and the balanced iwans, one is drowned by the endless waves of intricate arabesque in golden yellow and dark blue which bless the spectator with a space of internal serenity.

Covered with premeditated calligraphic fresco, the front doors are used as an apparatus to remind the spectator of the glory of God and of Shah Abbas I himself. Entering from the northern iwan, the compelling physical presence of the identical side iwans direct our attention to the soaring qibla iwan situated straight ahead. As a result such architecture stresses the degree of fidelity in the structure which makes it explicitly pervasive.

Imam Mosque, Shah Mosque or Abbasi Jame Mosque, which is known as one of the mosques Jahan Square in Isfahan, which was built during the Safavid and important architectural monuments of Iran Bhshmarmyrvd. The building immortal masterpieces of architecture, carpentry and tile work in the eleventh century AH is.

The mosque on the south side of Imam Square is located in the year 1020 AH Shah Abbas ordered the twenty-fourth year of his reign started its extensions and decorations, and his successors in the course is finished. Quality architecture This represents the height of a thousand years of mosque building in Iran. Shaping traditions, ideals, concepts of religious ritual, which maps the older and simpler types of slowly finding perfection, large elements of construction and decorations in the mosque with all the grandeur that it considered the world's greatest monuments placed, and unity has been realized. All royal mosque is a proportional and large Shalvdhay built. Nymgnbd arch head outside the field is 27 meters long and 33 meters high minarets. Mnarhhay bedchamber over the longer it is, while above all it dome located. Jlvkhan, which is almost a building mode, caller that the population N Byrv shelter, security and revitalizing the mosque calls.
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Pozri tiež
Islamic Architecture
List of mosques
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Islam in Iran
Google Maps Satellite view

Dvqaby both sides of the entrance is located kilim designs its worshipers who prays. More spatial volume of interest in this view, sometimes on a blue Drkhshansh case becomes almost ethereal, quite on the field is dominant in conflict with the elegant royal palace, the incredible superiority of religion over secular power and the fundamental importance of religion in the lives of city shows.

Jlvkhan is facing north, as the field was necessary, but since the altar should be New Jersey (ie, northeast to the southwest) to avoid being Qnas taste and great accuracy was necessary. Successfully solved this problem. High atrial Jlvkhan person into which features monuments of ancient Iran from the time. This is a circular atrium, and hence any direction and can not be like Pashnhay built on its spin axis. Arch long corridor to the North porch opens from the dark depths of human Nag•hanm yard sees bright sun. The head of the yard is large bedchamber, portal to another world focused on the glory and power. If the glory and grandeur of the scene color head and the dome was already stunning, stunning was repeated, repeated melodic elements of construction, symmetrical Taqnmahay, Ayvanhay balanced, calm and ablution large pool of homogeneous color poster that surround the widespread, state dome elegant and impressive, and slightly bulbous shape, located on a long stem, simple and has a very clear plan and Gvyast without any carrier or any Pshtbnd. Following the map and the building reflects the belief of both simple and fundamental concept in Islam shows and tells, that certainly brotherhood and equality of all believers direct access to the mercy of God have been. Motion and facilitate communication everywhere and no place in the barrier does not exist. Mosque floor no stairs, fence or no queues. Not seen in any package, any tunnel like corridor, place Chorus, passageway, a separate structure, such as no altar, no dedicated space, no there is no privileged position, just as any specific event, any object of any series of sacred and religious authorities available are not known. Walls in the role of flowers and garden plants are lost Manndshan, or real and natural gardens are open. Due to focus on listening perspectives on eight columns wide and created space to come up appears.

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