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Časová os pneumatík

Časová os pneumatík


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  • c. 2750 pred n. L

    Mesto Tyre je založené.

  • c. 1200 pred n. L. - asi 800 pred n. L

    Prvá vlna fénickej kolonizácie, kde sú v celom Stredomorí založené prevažne obchodné stanice.

  • 1100 pred n. L. - 725 pred n. L

    Úpadok Byblosu, pretože sesterské mesto Tyre sa dostáva do popredia.

  • c. 1 000 pred n. L

    Výška sily pneumatiky.

  • 969 pred n. L. - 936 pred n. L

    Hiram I vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 935 pred n. L. - 919 pred n. L

    Baal-eser I vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 918 pred n. L. - 910 pred n. L

    Abdastrato vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 909 pred n. L. - 898 pred n. L

    Methustratos vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 897 pred n. L. - 889 pred n. L

    Astharymos vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 888 pred n. L

    Phelles vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 887 pred n. L. - 856 pred n. L

    Ithobaal I vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 855 pred n. L. - 830 pred n. L

    Kráľom Týru kraľuje Baal-asor II.

  • 829 pred n. L. - 821 pred n. L

    Ako kráľ Tyru vládne Mattan II.

  • 820 pred n. L. - 774 pred n. L

    Pygmalion vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • c. 814 pred n. L

    Tradičný dátum založenia fénickej kolónie Kartágo od Tyru.

  • c. 800 pred n. L. - 600 p. N. L

    Druhá etapa fénickej kolonizácie, kde sa obchodné stanice stali plnými kolóniami v celom Stredomorí.

  • 750 pred n. L. - 740 pred n. L

    Ako kráľ Týru kraľuje Ithobaal II.

  • 739 pred n. L. - 730 pred n. L

    Ako vládca Týru kraľuje Hiram II.

  • 730 pred n. L. - 729 pred n. L

    Ako kráľ Tyru vládne Mattan II.

  • 729 pred n. L. - 694 pred n. L

    Elulaios vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 680 pred n. L. - 640 pred n. L

    Baal I vládne ako kráľ Týru.

  • 585 pred n. L. - 572 pred n. L

    Babylonský Nabuchodonozor II oblieha Tyre, neúspešne.

  • 585 pred n. L

    Nebuchadnezarove armády ničia fénické osídlenie v Tel Kabri.

  • 332 pred n. L

    Dobytie Levanty Alexandrom Veľkým, ktorý zničí Tyre.

  • Jan 332 BCE - July 332 BCE

    Alexander Veľký oblieha a dobýva Týr.

  • c. 301 pred n. L. - c. 195 pred n. L

    Tire, rovnako ako všetky ostatné fénické mestá, patrí k Ptolemaiovcom, vládcom helenistického Egypta.

  • c. 195 pred n. L

    Po bitke pri Panione Seleukovci konečne preberajú vládu Fenície od Ptolemaiovcov. Tire a ostatné fénické mestá zostanú v moci Seleucidov až do rímskeho dobytia Sýrie.

  • 195 pred n. L

    Hannibal, tvárou v tvár hrozbe odovzdania Rimanom po druhej púnskej vojne, utečie na seleukovský dvor Antiocha III. A stane sa jeho poradcom.

  • 64 pred n. L

    Z pneumatiky sa stáva rímska kolónia.


Spotrebitelia v roku 2019 nakúpili 88 miliónov automobilov. A hoci sa predaj v dôsledku pandémie koronavírusu v roku 2020 znížil na 73 miliónov, podľa Medzinárodnej energetickej agentúry by sa predaj mal vrátiť na úroveň pred pandémiou, medzivládna organizácia so sídlom v Paríži založená v roku 1974 s cieľom „koordinovať kolektívnu reakciu na závažné prerušenia dodávok ropy“. Podľa Andrewa Chestertona v roku 2016 bolo na cestách po celom svete odhadom 1,32 miliardy osobných, nákladných a autobusových automobilov. webová stránka Carsguide. Žiadne z týchto vozidiel by nebolo v prevádzke, keby nebolo Charlesa Goodyeara. Môžete mať motor, môžete mať podvozok, môžete mať pohon a kolesá. Ale bez pneumatík ste uviazli.

V roku 1844, viac ako 50 rokov pred objavením sa prvých gumových pneumatík na automobiloch, spoločnosť Goodyear patentovala proces známy ako vulkanizácia. Tento proces zahŕňal zahrievanie a odstraňovanie síry z gumy, látky, ktorú v amazonskom dažďovom pralese v Peru objavil francúzsky vedec Charles de la Condamine v roku 1735 (aj keď miestne mezoamerické kmene s látkou pracovali celé stáročia).

Vulkanizácia spôsobila, že guma je vodotesná a odolná voči zime, a zároveň zachováva svoju elasticitu. Kým tvrdenie spoločnosti Goodyear, že vynašiel vulkanizáciu, bolo spochybnené, na súde zvíťazil a dnes sa naňho spomína ako na jediného vynálezcu vulkanizovanej gumy. A to sa stalo veľmi dôležitým, keď si ľudia uvedomili, že to bude perfektné na výrobu pneumatík.


Na začiatku: Zrod modernej pneumatiky

Slovné upozornenie na nerd! Historici v online etymologickom slovníku píšu, že v 1300 s "Pojem je pneumatika ako obloženie kolesa." Preto „pneumatika“ alebo, ak ste Brit, „pneumatika“ je jednoducho skrátenie „odevu“.

Poďme rýchlo dopredu o nejakých 500 rokov 1845. V priebehu niekoľkých týždňov boli britskému vynálezcovi Thomasovi Hancockovi a americkému vynálezcovi a podnikateľovi Charlesovi Goodyearovi udelené patenty na vulkanizáciu gumy. Vulkanizácia, pomenovaná po rímskom bohu ohňa, je „chemický proces premeny prírodného kaučuku alebo príbuzných polymérov na odolnejšie materiály pridaním síry“. Vulkanizované materiály sú menej lepivé a majú vynikajúce mechanické vlastnosti “(Wikipedia).

Krátko po patentoch Goodyear a Hancock, v roku 1847 “Škótsky vynálezca Robert William Thompson si nechal patentovať pevnú pneumatiku, ktorá na zníženie vibrácií používa gumu a uzavretý vzduch. Ukázalo sa, že je príliš nákladný, jeho dizajn nikdy nevidel výrobu.

Nevyhnutnosť sa ukázala byť matkou vynálezu v 1888 keď však ďalší Škót John Boyd Dunlop vyvinul pneumatiku, ktorá by uľahčila trojkolke jeho dieťaťa jazdu po drsných uliciach Belfastu. Potom, čo sledoval, ako jeho syna trápi nepríjemná zimnica, sa rozhodol svojmu dieťaťu spríjemniť jazdu na trojkolke, ktorú mu predpísal lekár, a to tak, že na svoju trojkolku nasadil pneumatiky z plátna zlepeného gumou. Ako ste mohli uhádnuť z jeho priezviska, pneumatiky Dunlop boli oveľa úspešnejšie ako pneumatiky Thompson. Aj keď jeho nasledujúci patent bol zneplatnený v r 1892 (Thompson ho napokon porazil na patentovom úrade) jeho vynález a pneumatiky sa rýchlo uchytili, a to predovšetkým vďaka závodnému úspechu cyklistu Willieho Huma.

Je možné, že poznáte ďalšie meno: André Michelin. V 1895 , on a jeho brat Edouard ako prví použili pneumatiky na voze bez koní. Väčšinou známy ako automobil.

Napriek tomu, že Goodyear zomrel v konkurze, spoločnosť nesúca jeho meno, Goodyear Tire and Rubber, bola založená v Akron, OH v r. 1898 . Spoločnosť má sídlo v Akrone dodnes.

Podľa ThoughtCo. „In 1903 , P.W. Litchfield zo spoločnosti Goodyear Tire Company si nechal patentovať prvú bezdušovú pneumatiku, ale až do roku 1954 Packard nebola nikdy komerčne využívaná. V 1904 , boli zavedené montážne ráfiky, ktoré umožňovali vodičom opraviť si vlastné byty. V 1908 „Frank Seiberling vynašiel drážkované pneumatiky so zlepšenou trakciou na ceste. V 1910 Spoločnosť B.F. Goodrich Company vynašla pneumatiky s dlhšou životnosťou pridaním uhlíka do gumy. “ A v 1937 Spoločnosť Goodrich vyvinula prvú pneumatiku zo syntetickej gumy z patentovanej látky s názvom „Chemigum“.

Na začiatku Baby Boom, v 1946 Spoločnosť Michelin vyvinula radiálnu pneumatiku, ktorá ďaleko prevyšovala konštrukčnú radu bias-ply, ktorá jej predchádzala. Napriek tomu, že sa používanie technológie radiálnych pneumatík rýchlo rozšírilo po celej Európe a Ázii (pýšilo sa vynikajúcimi číslami ovládania a spotreby paliva), v USA chvíľu trvalo, kým sa uchytila. Nebolo to až do 1968 , keď publikácia o advokácii spotrebiteľov, Spotrebiteľské správy , udelila svoje dve najlepšie miesta radiálnym pneumatikám. Časopis citoval dlhšiu životnosť, zvýšenú bezpečnosť, ovládateľnosť a poznamenal, že z dlhodobého hľadiska boli náklady na prevádzku na radiálnych pneumatikách oveľa menšie ako pri pneumatikách s predpätím, ktoré bolo potrebné často vymieňať (Harvard Business School). Po pomalom štarte má radiálna pneumatika v súčasnosti trhový podiel 100%.

Run-flat pneumatiky sú vyvinuté v Osemdesiate roky minulého storočia pomôcť vodičovi udržať konštantnú rýchlosť jazdy a predchádzať nehodám spôsobeným dramatickou stratou tlaku vzduchu.

Od 2007 , všetky vozidlá musia byť vybavené systémami monitorovania tlaku v pneumatikách. Po rozsiahlom odvolaní spoločnosti Firestone v 90. rokoch minulého storočia americký Kongres nariadil používanie systému TPMS v osobných vozidlách, aby pomohol varovať vodičov pred podhustením pneumatík.

Ak sa má veriť dizajnérom v Hankooku, budúcnosť je bezvzduchová pneumatika.


Čo sa stalo s pneumatikou

Na juhu Libanonu existujú dôkazy o starovekej bitke tak prudkej, že natrvalo zmenila pobrežie Stredozemného mora. Polostrov vyčnieva z pevniny v mieste, kde hrdé ostrovné mesto kedysi odmietlo útočníka, a poskytuje tiché svedectvo o osude všetkých, ktorí sa vzopreli Alexandrovi Veľkému. Mesto sa nazýva Tire a nachádza sa približne 20 kilometrov severne (12 míľ) od izraelských hraníc a asi 80 kilometrov (50 míľ) južne od libanonského hlavného mesta Bejrút. Tire je študentom Biblie dobre známa najmä (aj keď nie výlučne) z proroctva Ezechiela, ktorý bol inšpirovaný predvídať detaily pádu Týru, ktoré by sa jeho súčasníkom zdali veľmi nepravdepodobné, ale v priebehu času sa ukázal byť presný aj pre najmenších detail.

Ancient Tire sa skladal z dvoch častí. Prvá časť mesta bola na pevnine a druhá časť bola na ostrove necelý kilometer od pobrežia. Ostrovné mesto Tyre bolo požehnané nie jedným, ale dvoma oddelenými prístavmi, ktoré boli obrátené k opačným stranám ostrova. Severný prístav (nazývaný tiež „Sidónsky prístav“#8221), ktorý je v prevádzke dodnes, bol jedným z najlepších prírodných prístavov na východnej strane Stredozemného mora. Mať dva vynikajúce chránené prístavy prinieslo mestu veľké výhody a umožnilo Tyre stať sa hlavným cieľom obchodných lodí, ktoré dúfajú, že budú obchodovať a praktizovať obchod s ľuďmi z východného Stredomoria. Pneumatiky veľmi zbohatli a ostrovná časť mesta sa postupom času výrazne opevnila. Mesto na pevnine bolo sekundárnou časťou mesta a slúžilo predovšetkým na zásobovanie ostrova vodou a zásobami. Dalo by sa uvažovať o časti mesta na pevnine ako o predmestí “, zatiaľ čo ostrov bol domovom bohatých a šľachtických rodov. Ostrov slúžil aj ako náboženské centrum mesta a hlavné miesto obchodu a obchodu.

Bohatstvo pneumatík

Mesto/štát Tyre malo spočiatku dobré vzťahy s Izraelom a Judskom, hoci bol tento vzťah obchodný a nebol založený na žiadnych náboženských alebo kultúrnych sympatiách. Keď kráľ Šalamún staval prvý chrám v Jeruzaleme, tyrský kráľ Hiram slávne dodával céder z libanonských lesov, ako aj ďalší materiál a dokonca aj kvalifikovaných robotníkov. Za to bol Hiram dobre zaplatený. (1. Kráľov 5)

Jeden export, ktorý prispel k veľkému bohatstvu Týru, bolo purpurové farbivo na oblečenie, ktoré sa začalo nazývať Tyrianova purpurová. Toto bolo najvzácnejšie farbivo svojej doby, z veľkej časti kvôli veľkému množstvu práce potrebnej na výrobu aj malých množstiev. Mušle Murex zo Stredozemného mora boli najskôr vo veľkom odchytené do pascí. Na výrobu jedného gramu farbiva bolo potrebných neuveriteľné množstvo týchto mäkkýšov. Napríklad na výrobu farbiva na jeden odev bolo použitých až 12 000 mäkkýšov. Z tohto dôvodu bolo vlastníctvo odevov zafarbených na purpurovú pre väčšinu ľudí neúmerne drahé. Na čas. fialová sa stala farbou spojenou s kráľovskou hodnosťou.

Obyvateľom Týru a ľuďom z jeho susedného mesta Sidon sa všeobecne hovorí “Fenik ”. Hlavnými mestami Feničanov boli pôvodne Byblos, Sidon a Tyre, ale zakladali si kolónie pozdĺž severoafrického pobrežia a až na západ ako Portugalsko a Španielsko. Mestá Byblos, Sidon a Tyre sa nachádzajú na území modernej Sýrie a Libanonu. Fénická kolónia v severnej Afrike s názvom Kartágo sa neskôr stala hlavným mestom a veľkým konkurentom Rímskej republiky. Fenické mestá boli organizované ako mestské štáty a nezdá sa, že by existovala centralizovaná fénická vláda. Feničania boli námornícky ľud a ich obchodné lode sa plavili po celom Stredozemnom mori, vďaka čomu boli ich mestá veľmi bohaté.

Námorní Féničania pôvodne stavali mestá pozdĺž východného pobrežia Stredozemia. Neskôr založili kolónie v severnej Afrike a na západe ako v Španielsku.

Náboženstvo Tyru

Kultúrne boli Feničania Kanaánčania a hovorili variáciou kanaánskeho jazyka a uctievali variácie rovnakých bohov ako kanaánsky ľud v Izraeli. Boh plodnosti, ktorý sa v Biblii bežne označuje ako “Baal ”, bol vo Fenícii bežne uctievaný spolu s jeho sprievodnými praktikami ritualizovanej prostitúcie, uctievania sexu a detských obetí. Konkrétne božstvo Baala uctievané v Týre dostalo meno Melkart (alebo Melqart). Gréci považovali Melkarta za variáciu vlastného poloboha Herakla (alebo Herkulesa Rimanom). Toto spojenie s gréckym božským hrdinom mýtu by zohralo úlohu pri páde mesta.

Zdá sa, že uctievanie Melkartu Tyrianom Baalom bolo zavedené do 10 kmeňového kráľovstva Izraela za vlády kráľa Achaba. Achab nerozumne uzavrel manželstvo s dcérou fénického kráľa Sidona, pomenovaného v Biblii, “Ethbaal ” (čo znamená “S Baalom ”). Ethbaalovou dcérou bola samozrejme neslávne známa Jezábel, agresívna propagátorka uctievania Melkarta a začarovaný odporca uctievania Boha Izraela.

Po tomto bode histórie kedysi dobré vzťahy medzi Týrom a Júdom a Izraelom zakvitli. Prorok Joel obvinil tyrský a Sidonský ľud z predaja judského ľudu do otroctva Grékom:

“A ľud Júdu a Jeruzalema ste predali Grékom, Aby ich odstránili ďaleko od svojho územia ” (Joel 3: 6)

Ezechielove proroctvá proti pneumatikám

Obyvatelia Týru začali byť príliš sebavedomí vo svojej prirodzenej ostrovnej obrane a príliš hrdí na bohatstvo a krásu svojho mesta. Rozvinul u nich pocit žiarlivosti a rivality voči Jeruzalemu a radovali sa z nešťastí, ktorým čelila, a dúfali, že ich využijú na obchodné príležitosti. Z týchto dôvodov bol prorok Ezechiel inšpirovaný k proroctvu proti nej:

„Syn človeka, pretože Tyre povedal proti Jeruzalemu:„ Aha! Brána národov bola zlomená! Všetko mi príde do cesty a zbohatnem teraz, keď je zničená. “Preto to hovorí Zvrchovaný Pán Jehova:„ Tu som proti tebe, Tyre, a postavím proti tebe mnoho národov, rovnako ako more vyvoláva svoje vlny. Zničia múry Tyru a zbúrajú jej veže a ja zoškrabem pôdu a urobím z nej žiarivú, holú skalu. Stane sa sušiarňou pre vlečné siete uprostred mora. “ (Ezechiel 26: 2–5)

Všimnite si, že toto proroctvo prináša určité predpovede:

  • Proti Týru by bolo “mnoho národov ” (Ezekiel 26: 3)
  • Jej múry a veže budú zbúrané (Ezechiel 26: 4)
  • Jej pôda bude zoškrabaná a stane sa žiariacou holou skalou (Ezechiel 26: 4)
  • Rybári by túto oblasť využili na sušenie sietí (Ezechiel 26: 5)

Bližšie preskúmanie zvyšku Ezechielovej kapitoly 26 odhaľuje ďalšie podrobnosti:

  • Osady na vidieku by boli zabité (Ezechiel 26: 6)
  • Babylonský kráľ Nabuchodonozor by prišiel proti Týru (Ezechiel 26: 7)
  • Obkľúčil a zbúral steny a domy Týru (Ezekiel 26: 12)
  • Kamene, drevo a pôda z pneumatík budú hodené do vody (Ezechiel 26: 12)

Nebukadnecar a#8217 s Obliehanie Tyru

Nebuchadnezzarovo obliehanie Týru sa začalo krátko po Ezechielových slovách proti mestu. Podľa židovského historika Josepha v prvom storočí Nabuchodonozor obliehal Týr neuveriteľných 13 rokov:

“Teraz pridám záznamy Féničanov, pretože nebude zbytočné dávať čitateľom pri tejto príležitosti demonštrácie viac než dosť. Máme v nich tento súčet čias ich niekoľkých kráľov: “Nabuchodonosor obliehal Týr trinásť rokov v dňoch Ithobala, ich kráľ po ňom kraľoval Baal, desať rokov ” (ProtiApion, 1.21)

Josephus tiež cituje príbeh, ktorý dodnes neprežil, od historika menom Philostratus (žil okolo 170 až 250 pred n. L.), Ktorý vo svojich správach o Nabuchodonozorovi povedal: „tento kráľ obliehal Týr trinásť rokov: zatiaľ čo v Týre súčasne kraľoval Ethbaal."Žiaľ, je to toľko, čo musia hovoriť staroveké záznamy o obkľúčení Nabuchodonozora. Napriek tomu medzi Ezekielom, Josephusom a určitými archeologickými záznamami možno vyvodiť určité závery. Že obliehanie bude dlhé, dodáva Ezekiel:

“ Syn človeka, babylonský kráľ Nabuchodonozor prinútil svoju armádu, aby sa veľmi namáhala proti Týru. Každá hlava bola plešatá a každé rameno bolo odreté. Ale on a jeho armáda nedostávali žiadne mzdy za prácu, ktorú vynaložil na Tyre. Preto toto hovorí Zvrchovaný Pán Jehova: „Tu dávam egyptskú krajinu babylonskému kráľovi Nabuchodonozorovi, ktorý zničí jej bohatstvo, vezme z nej veľa koristi a drancovania a stane sa mzdou pre jeho armádu. Ako kompenzáciu za jeho prácu proti nej mu dám egyptskú krajinu, pretože konali za mňa, ’ vyhlasuje Zvrchovaný Pán Jehova. ” (Ezechiel 29: 18–20)

Počas zdĺhavého, viacročného obliehania babylonských vojakov hlavy odierali od odierajúcich sa prilieb, plecia sa im odierali od brnenia a dlhej práce v obkľúčení. Pevninská časť mesta evidentne pripadla Babylončanom spolu s pridruženými osadami v okolí. Múry a veže pevninského mesta boli zarovnané s domami vo vnútri. Susedné osady boli zrovnané so zemou a ich obyvatelia kruto zabíjaní. Napriek tomu, že Babylon nemal významné námorníctvo, nebol schopný obsadiť opevnené ostrovné mesto. Nabuchodonozor sa teda rozhodol ostrov obkľúčiť, prerušil ho od zásob z pevniny a v rozsahu, v akom mohol, a odrezal ho od zásobovania morom. Takto dúfali, že mesto vyhladujú na podrobenie. Dlhé obliehanie tohto druhu by Babylončanov vyšlo draho, čo naznačuje aj Ezekiel, ktorý povedal, že armáda dostane “žiadne mzdy za prácu, ktorú vynaložil na Tyre. ” (Ezekiel 29:18) Ako kompenzácia je Nabuchodonozorovi sľúbené bohatstvo egyptskej krajiny.

Napriek tomu, že historické záznamy o babylonskom obliehaní Tyru a následnej invázii do Egypta sú obmedzené, archeologické dôkazy podporujú biblický záznam. Zlomená klinová tabuľa, ktorú prvýkrát publikoval v roku 1926 nemecký archeológ Eckhard Unger, odkazuje na zásoby jedla pre “kráľ a jeho vojaci za svoj pochod proti Týru“. Ďalšie klinopisné tabuľky uvádzajú, že v určitom okamihu bola Tyre v rukách babylonského kráľa Nabuchodonozora. Klinopisná tabuľka v Britskom múzeu nakoniec ukazuje, že Nabuchodonozor skutočne úspešne zapojil egyptské sily.

Nebúkadnecar nezabral ostrovné mesto násilím. Zdá sa pravdepodobné, že mesto vyjednávalo o kapitulácii po 13 rokoch obliehania. Buď týrsky kráľ Itobal zomrel pri obliehaní, alebo bol odovzdaný Babylončanom, aby ho nahradil jeho syn Baal, ktorý sa stane babylonským bábkovým vládcom. Neskoršiu teóriu podporuje starodávny zoznam zahraničných kráľov žijúcich v Babylone, ktorí boli podobne ako judský kráľ Jehojachin zajatcami závislými na živote na babylonskom panovníkovi. Na vrchole tohto zoznamu je nemenovaný kráľ Týru.

Napriek tomu sa dalo povedať, že proroctvo týkajúce sa Týru v tomto bode bolo splnené iba čiastočne. Nabuchodonozor obsadil mesto na pevnine, ale ostrovné mesto nebolo zničené, nieto ešte vyhodené do vody ”. Splnenie tejto časti proroctva by na výstup Alexandra Veľkého čakalo viac ako 250 rokov. Pamätajte si, že Ezekiel povedal, že Tire bude vydrancované “mnoho národov ”. (Ezechiel 26: 3)

Po páde Babylonu, achajmenovská dynastia, vládla tomu, čo Biblia nazýva ríšou Médov a Peržanov (Daniel 5:28). Táto perzská ríša vládla dve storočia nad bývalými holdingmi Babylonie vrátane Týru, kým ich neodviedol divoký mladý kráľ z Macedónska. V čase svojej smrti, krátko pred dosiahnutím veku 33 rokov, Alexander Veľký ovládal ríšu, ktorá siahala od Grécka, na juh do Egypta a ako ďaleký východ ako India. Nikdy nebol porazený v bitke a mohol by pokračovať vo svojich výbojoch, keby zrazu nezomrel v Babylone za okolností, ktoré sú stále kontroverzné. Mnoho starovekých historikov si myslelo, že bol otrávený, aj keď mnohí (ale nie všetci) moderní historici veria, že zomrel na prirodzené príčiny, ako je malária alebo týfus.

Krátko po nástupe otca sa Alexander obrátil očami na východ k starovekým gréckym rivalom a rozhodol sa dobyť Perziu. Jeho armáda najskôr napochodovala na juh, smerom k Egyptu. Pred príchodom do Fenície Alexander už porazil dve obrovské perzské armády. Perzský kráľ Darius III unikol zajatiu a utiekol do východnej časti svojej ríše, kde mohol ďalší deň bojovať. Armáda Alexandra pokračovala na juh, kde fénické mestá Byblos a Sidon kapitulovali bez boja. Teraz už len Tyre, najväčšie a najbohatšie mesto Féničanov, zostalo mimo kontroly Alexandra.

Pneumatika popiera žiadosť Alexandra#8217s

V nádeji, že sa vyhne krviprelievaniu, poslal tyrský kráľ na stretnutie s Alexandrom vyslancov s darmi. Privítali Alexandra zdvorilo a bez toho, aby sa mu formálne podriadili, požiadali o formálne spojenectvo. Alexander kontroval svojou vlastnou požiadavkou, vďaka ktorej boli Tyrčania okamžite podozrievaví. Vnútri silne opevneného ostrovného mesta stál starý a slávny chrám hlavného boha Týru Melkarta (alebo Melqarta). Gréci identifikovali tohto boha so svojim slávnym mýtickým hrdinom Hercaclesom (Herkulesom). Rovnako ako mnoho starovekých kráľov, Alexander tvrdil, že pochádza z bohov. Alexander konkrétne tvrdil, že pochádza z Herakla. Na sochách a obrazoch vytvorených Alexandrom je zobrazený ako nosí alebo nosí predmety spojené s Héraklom. Na svojich minciach je zobrazený ako mladistvý a mocný Herakles. Moderne by ste mohli povedať, že Herakles bol Alexander a#8217 s “ značkou ”.

Tyrčania zdvorilo odmietli žiadosť Alexandra o obetovanie vo svojom meste. Žiadosť prišla počas ich veľkého každoročného náboženského sviatku Melkartovi a mohli mať pocit, že nechať Alexandra tam sa obetovať a v tom čase by to znamenalo, že uznali jeho zvrchovanosť nad mestom. Možno tušili (správne), že keď Gréci pozvú Alexandra a jeho sily do predných dverí, možno nikdy neodídu. Alebo chceli, aby si pred rozhodnutím vojny nevybrali stranu medzi Grékmi a Peržanmi. V každom prípade navrhli, aby sa Alexander namiesto obete v chráme ostrovného mesta Týr obetoval v chráme v meste Old Tire ”, meste na pevnine, ktoré Nabuchodonozor zničil. Alexander bol zúrivý a okamžite sa vyhrážal obkľúčením a povedal:#8220Skutočne sa spoliehate na svoju situáciu, pretože žijete na ostrove, pohŕdate touto armádou peších vojakov, ale čoskoro vám ukážem, že ste na pevnine. Preto chcem, aby ste vedeli, že buď vstúpim do vášho mesta, alebo ho obkľúčim.

Tyrčania Alexandra naďalej odmietali. Ďalší vyslanci od Alexandra boli zavraždení. Pri ich hodnotení mal pravdu, Tyrčania boli príliš sebavedomí vo svojej prirodzenej ostrovnej obrane a vo vlastných vojenských silách. Tiež si mohli myslieť, že ak bude Alexander nútený podniknúť ťažké a zdĺhavé obliehanie, Perzský Dárius III. Bude mať čas pripraviť sa a prísť na pomoc. Ďalšou teóriou je, že obyvatelia Týru možno dúfali v pomoc svojej najväčšej kolónie, Kartága.

Na rozdiel od Nabuchodonozora o dve storočia skôr sa Alexander neuspokojil s tým, že jednoducho čakal a nechal Tyrianov hladovať. Nabuchodonozor nemal predstavivosť, aby urobil to, čo Alexander. Alexander mal dobyť ríše a ostrov Týr mu stál v ceste. Oneskorenie bolo neznesiteľné! Navyše, ak by nechal Týru na pokoji, Peržania by tam mohli bezpečne udržať svoju flotilu a Alexander by mal aj naďalej nepriateľa za chrbtom, keď sa odvážil na východ. Napriek tomu, že mu more bránilo v ceste, Alexander dokázal túto prekážku vidieť. Verný svojmu slovu, zmenil by ostrov Tyre na pevninu.

Alexander stavia hrádzu

Búranie ruín pevniny Tyre (“Stará pneumatika ”), Alexander nechal kamene hodiť do mora v mieste, kde bola vzdialenosť medzi pevninou a ostrovom Tyre najkratšia. Jeho sily začali na ostrov stavať mohutnú hrádzu (nazývanú aj “mole ”). Vojaci Alexandra sa stali inžiniermi a stavebnými robotníkmi. Ich materiálom bolo drevo zo známych libanonských cédrových lesov a množstvo kameňa a dokonca aj pôdy zo starého mesta Týr, ktoré ležalo v ruinách od jeho zničenia Nabuchodonozorom pred dvoma storočiami.

Ako sa voda prehlbovala, postup na hrádzi sa začal spomaľovať. V tomto mieste si úsilie Alexandrových mužov vyžiadalo od Tyrian len výsmech. Muži z Tyru sa priblížili k robotníkom na člnoch, aby boli dostatočne blízko, aby ich bolo počuť, ale dostatočne ďaleko, aby sa vyhli nebezpečenstvu. Na mužov Alexandra začali kričať opovrhnutie a vyčítať. “ Bola táto práca pre hrdých vojakov? Predstavili ste si, keď ste narukovali, že budete na chrbte nosiť koše s kameňom a špinou? Myslíte si, že Alexander je väčší ako boh mora? ”

Práce na hrádzi pokračovali a onedlho zahŕňali desaťtisíce mužov povolaných do služby zo susedných miest a obcí. Až teraz sa muži z Tyru začali prebúdzať k nebezpečenstvu.

Ako chodník postupoval, dostal sa na dosah lukostrelcov na stenách Tyru. Aj keď staroveké správy o ich výške môžu byť prehnané, niet pochýb o tom, že múry ostrovnej pevnosti boli neobvykle vysoké a impozantné. Šípy a ďalšie projektily vrhali dole na robotníkov Alexandra#8217, ktorí zabíjali a zranili a robili ďalší pokrok, takmer nemožné. Alexander kontroval postavením dvoch najvyšších obliehacích veží v dávnej histórii a potom ich nechal presunúť na koniec hrádze. Tieto drevené veže boli pokryté surovou kožou, aby chránili rám pred horiacimi šípmi. Tieto veže chránili robotníkov Alexandra pred nepriateľskou paľbou a umožnili im pokračovať v práci. Veže slúžili aj ako delostrelecké platformy. Katapulty a lukostrelci na vrchole obliehacích veží dokázali opätovať paľbu na vojakov na stenách Tyru.

To podnietilo Tyriancov k veľmi šikovnému protiútoku. Vzali starú transportnú loď a naplnili ju do palebných zbraní vysoko horľavým materiálom. Na stožiare zavesili kotly s olejom a potom dve lodné lode odtiahli ohnivú loď na koniec chodníka a spustili ju na plytčinu. Tyrskí vojaci plavidlo rýchlo zapálili a peklo sa rozšírilo do obliehacích veží Alexandra a ďalšieho obliehacieho zariadenia. Tyrskí vojaci na člnoch pristáli na hrádzi, aby zabili alebo zahnali späť vojakov a robotníkov Alexandra a#8217, ktorí sa pokúsia uhasiť plamene. Gambit bol úplným úspechom. Veže boli zničené a práce na hrádzi sa zastavili.

Pokles trval krátko. Alexander by nenechal rovnakú stratégiu fungovať dvakrát. Uvedomil si, že bude potrebovať námorníctvo. Našťastie ostatné mestá Fenície, ktoré sa mu vzdali do značnej miery bez boja, mali bojové lode. Cyperský kráľ si ďalej želal byť spojencom Alexandra a poslal 120 svojich bojových lodí. Ďalších 23 bojových lodí pochádzalo z gréckeho mestského štátu Iónia. Celkovo mal Alexander v súčasnosti námorníctvo s 223 loďami, čo bolo viac, než mala Tire, a viac než dosť na zablokovanie ostrovného mesta. Tyrské lode, ktoré sa ocitli v menšine, mohli byť obsiahnuté v dvoch prístavoch Tire a#8217, kde najlepšie, čo teraz mohli urobiť, bolo zabrániť vstupu do mesta. Blokáda bola úplná, Týrčania boli teraz zavretí v ich meste a nedokázali obťažovať mužov Alexandra ani zásobovať mesto zásobovaním z mora.

Práce na hrádzi pokračovali. Alexander nariadil, aby bola ďalej rozšírená a obliehacie veže znovu postavené. Keď sa dokončovala hrádza, jeho nové námorníctvo testovalo obranu mesta v rôznych bodoch a zaútočilo na vchody do prístavov. Májové lode boli potopené v ústí prístavu, ale obrancovia dokázali udržať lode Alexandra na uzde. Niektoré lode Alexandra boli namontované s baranidlami a testovali mestské hradby na mnohých miestach. Ostatné lode boli pripútané k sebe, aby mohli udržať obliehaciu vežu dostatočne vysokú na to, aby sa dostali na vrchol mestských hradieb. Nakoniec sa jednej z lodí, ktoré boli vybavené baranidlami, podarilo preraziť malé prienik cez steny.

Pád pneumatiky

Aby grécke sily rozdelili pozornosť Tyrianovcov, podnikli niekoľko diverzných útokov na rôzne body hradieb ostrovov a námorníctvo bombardovalo mesto zo všetkých strán projektilmi. Keď sily Tire a#8217s bojovali na všetkých stranách, k rozbitému múru sa priblížili dve lode. Z vysokej obliehacej veže Alexander osobne priviedol niektorých svojich elitných vojakov k hradbám Tyru a násilím sa dostali do mesta. Dôkladne demoralizovaní obrancovia Tyru boli teraz v panike a Alexanderské sily boli teraz schopné preraziť v iných častiach mesta vrátane jeho prístavov. Boje v meste boli tvrdé, ale relatívne krátke.

Niektorí občania Tyru hľadali úkryt v chráme Melkart (Melqart), kde sa Alexander chcel obetovať Heraklovi (Herkulesovi). Z mesta sa stal bitúnok. V bitke zahynulo 6 000 tyrských obrancov, zatiaľ čo údajne iba 400 z Alexandrových mužov zomrelo v záverečnom boji o Tyr. Aj keď sú tieto čísla prehnané, tento rozdiel bol určite veľký. 30 000 občanov Týru bolo následne predaných do otroctva, zatiaľ čo 2 000 vojakov, ktorí prežili pád, bolo prinútených vstúpiť na pláže v Týre a zavesiť alebo pribiť rukami na stromy, stĺpiky a základné rámy, kým neboli mŕtvi. Rímska ríša neskôr skvele používala túto formu pomalého verejného popravy nazývaného latinčina „ukrižovanie“#8220.

Starovekí historici uvádzajú, že pred krutosťou víťaza bolo tajne zachránených 15 000 Týrčanov. Keďže Alexander zatlačil do služby vojakov a námorníkov podrobených fénických miest, mnohé z jeho síl boli s krvou a kultúrou v spojení s ľuďmi z Týru. Niektoré z týchto vojsk potichu poskytli svojim príbuzným ochranu a vyslali ich na svoje lode, kde boli pašovaní preč od nebezpečenstva.

Nakoniec Alexander Herkulovi obetoval v Melkartovom chráme. Je zaujímavé, že napriek veľkému zabíjaniu, ktoré nariadil, boli tí, ktorí hľadali úkryt v chráme, zachránení. Tu sa pravdepodobne pokúsil ukázať svoju úctu k chrámu, ktorý spájal s uctievaním Hérakla.

Pneumatika v neskorších storočiach

Pneumatika bola zrovnaná so zemou. Pre víťaznú armádu bolo bežnou praxou redukovať múry dobytého mesta na ruiny, aby mesto nebolo opevnené a znovu použité proti nim. To bol prípad Tyru. Hrdá Tyre, zbavená pôsobivej obrany a obnažená svojich občanov, už dávno nebola ani ostrovom, ale len na to, aby rybári sušili siete na holej skale.

The city would eventually be rebuilt, although never again would it enjoy its former political importance. However, under the Romans the city would become an important commercial centre. The worship of Melkart did not disappear quickly. His image , continued to be presented on Tyrian coinage. It is a strange fact that during the lifetime of Jesus, the Tyrian Shekel (also called a Tetradrachma), was the only acceptable coin that could be used to pay the temple tax in Jerusalem. The money changers that Jesus drove out of the temple were changing Roman currency into Tyrian shekels. The 30 pieces of silver that the arch-traitor Judas was bought with (Matthew 26: 14,15) were almost certainly Tyrian shekels and bore the face of the Baal of Tyre.

Many of the Phoenician’s who escaped the fall of Tyre eventually made their way to Carthage in North Africa. With Tyre destroyed, Carthage became the most important Phoenician city and would for a time under her famous general Hannibal, even rival Rome for dominance of the Mediterranean.

During the ministry of Jesus, crowds of people from Tyre and Sidon would travel to hear Jesus speak. On one occasion, Jesus personally visited the region around Tyre, on which occasion he cured the demon-possessed child of a Phoenician woman who was suffering greatly. Jesus visit to the region evidently bore fruit, because just over 20 years later toward the conclusion of the Apostle Paul’s third missionary trip, he sought out and stayed with the Christian community in Tyre for seven days.

In the 7th century AD, Tyre and what is now Lebanon and Syria fell to Muslim Arab invaders. In 1124, European Crusaders won Tyre for Christendom in the First Crusade. In 1291, Muslim forces drove out the Crusaders and for the next many centuries, what remained of Tyre lay in ruins, inhabited by almost no one. In 1697, an English academic and clergyman named Henry Maundrell passed through Tyre on his way to Jerusalem. He reported in Tyre only “a few poor wretches, harboring themselves in vaults and subsisting chiefly on fishing.” This immediately brings to mind Ezekiel’s statement that Tyre, “…will become a drying yard for dragnets in the midst of the sea.” (Ezekiel 26:5)

By the end of the 19th century, a population was again beginning to form in what had once been Tyre. These were no longer Phoenician people, whose culture, religion and language has been lost to history. Rather the new city is peopled by descendants of the Arabs who first settled in the land after the death of Muhammad. Sadly, war continues to visit the region. Notably, the Lebanese Civil War which raged from the mid-1970’s until 1990 brought much suffering to the region. During the third phase of the war the city was heavily shelled by Israeli artillery in 1982. Most recently, armed forces in the city belonging to the Shia Muslim “Hezbollah” militia were bombed by Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War.

Aerial photo of Tyre circa 1934. Centuries of sedimentation has turned Alexander’s causeway into a peninsula 500 meters wide.

Today, visitors who look for ruins from Phoenician Tyre will be disappointed for nothing at all remains from that time period. Everything from that era was removed and thrown into the sea to build Alexander’s causeway, leaving only “shining, bare rock” (Ezekiel 26:4). Impressive ruins from Roman period do exist and UNESCO has declared the area a World Heritage Site. Alexander’s causeway permanently altered the sea currents and many long centuries of sedimentation has turned the causeway into a sandy peninsula approximately 500 meters wide. In recent decades the area has been heavily built over. The area of the causeway now contains hundreds of apartment blocks and Lebanese Tyre has a population roughly estimated in 1993 to be 117,000 (although the real number is probably much higher). Tyre’s southern harbour gradually filled with silt and has long since disappeared but the northern, “Sidonian” harbour is still used and is filled with fishing boats and pleasure craft. Recent years have seen a marked increase in tourism and it is hoped that the newborn city’s white sandy beaches and rich historical heritage will make modern Tyre a tourist hotspot.

Photo Credits:

Aerial photo of Tyre, circa 1934. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Phoenicia map by author. Created on StepMap.

Siege of Tyre. Created by Frank Martini of the Department of History, United States Military Academy. Source: Wikimedia Commons


Round and Rubber, But Always Evolving

Back in the 19th century, before carriages left their horses behind, wheels served mainly to reduce the effort required to drag a payload across often unpaved expanses. Only the horses, mules or oxen that pulled the carts actually needed any real traction, so the wooden wheels of the day were typically wrapped in a strip of iron to provide durability over whatever terrain might be encountered. Once livestock were superseded by on-board propulsion systems, the workload on the wheels changed dramatically. Driver demands for tractive effort, steering inputs and braking forces switched from reigns and whips to pedals, levers, tillers and eventually steering wheels that sent forces directly the wheels on the ground.

Just as gills and fins eventually gave way to lungs and feet on the sea creatures that crawled out onto the beach, iron rims were replaced by rubber. With a mere 2/3 horsepower coming from its single-cylinder engine, the 1886 Benz Motorwagen was able to get by with solid rubber tires. While this approach worked for the early motorcars, as engines got more powerful, tires with more compliance became necessary to handle the loads.

The tire is the first element of the vehicle suspension system that has to absorb road irregularities, and solid tires simply could not be made with enough compliance and wear resistance to be suitable for mass consumption. Before long, John Dunlop created the first practical pneumatic tire with a hollow rubber tube filled with air. And just like that, a new evolutionary sequence was underway. Pneumatic tires provided the flexibility needed to absorb impacts of both early roads and those we travel upon in the present day.

The first pneumatic tires were tall and skinny, similar to many bicycle tires still in use today. As vehicles got bigger, heavier and more powerful, tires continued to evolve, with the reinforcing plies being re-oriented from bias angles to the radials that we all drive on now. In the 1970s, Pirelli ushered in another major transition with the introduction of the P7, the first high-performance, low-profile radial. It was initially developed for the Lancia Stratos and was quickly adopted by Porsche for the original 911 Turbo. Today, even mainstream sedans like the Honda Accord and Ford Fusion regularly feature low-profile descendants of the P7 as standard or optional equipment.

Just as it sometimes seems impossible to eradicate simple organisms like bacteria and viruses, if the DNA survives, it can come back in a new tougher, drug-resistant form. The same holds true for the humble solid rubber tire. In recent years, Michelin has actively worked to revive the non-pneumatic tire in the form of the "tweel." Unlike the solid rubber tires of the 19th century, the tweel combines a thin but tough solid rubber perimeter supported by flexible polyurethane spokes and a solid central mounting hub. No car manufacturer has pursued this particular branch of the tire family tree yet, but Michelin is promoting the tweel for off-road applications like skid-steer loaders that may be more susceptible to punctures.

Will something like the tweel be the rolling stock of the future or another evolutionary dead end? Only time will tell, but history suggests that an innovative leap forward is hardly without precedent.


Tyre Principal Seaport of Phoenicia

The people of Sidon were one of the many different Semitic cultures that inhabited the land of Canaan. Sidon was established on the coast of modern-day Damascus near the Mesopotamian Sea. In time, these people became known as the Phoenicians, and they developed a unique seafaring culture that specialized in the trade of goods and merchandise. Around 1200 B.C., a group of Phoenician colonists left Sidon and headed north to create a new settlement. This newly founded area was called Tyre, and it eventually became the most powerful city of trade and commerce within the Phoenicians. It is placed on the Biblical Timeline Chart around between 1000 BC and 1100 BC as it reaches the height of its power.

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Atraktívny dizajn ideálne pre váš domov, kanceláriu, kostol a#8230

The city of Tyre had a vast seaport. This seaport is what allowed the city to have a monopoly on the coastal trade routes that existed in the Mesopotamian region. Tyre’s routes began in the east near modern day Lebanon and extended all the way to the west near modern day Spain. Many famous ancient cultures such as Egyptians, Romans and Greeks conducted business with the Phoenicians. Tyre also had sent colonists to the tip of North Africa in the west and established a powerful city-state known as Carthage. In the ancient world, many great cities were located next to Mesopotamian sea, and this is why the Phoenicians were able to use their seaports to effectively engage in commerce.

The Phoenicians developed an economy that was founded on the exchange of goods. They bartered just about anything they got their hands on. They traded wood, precious stones, weapons, cloth and slaves. The most important commodity that they exchanged was the purple dye. This particular substance was a powder used to provide color garments worn by the rich people of ancient times. The Phoenicians had managed to monopolize the trade of this purple dye and their name as a people became associated with the color. Phoinois is an ancient Greek word for purple and the word Phoenician had been ascribed to the people who manufactured this royal hue. The Phoenicians established manufacturing centers for the development of purple dye. They also had different manufacturing centers for wood and other goods such as glass and pottery.

Tyre was the center of activity for Phoenician trade and power. This city-state was ruled by kings, and it had a powerful navy that was considered the best in the ancient world. They also had land forces, but they relied heavily on their marine like warriors to carry out assaults against enemies that decided to attack their city or disrupt their trade lines.

Many Phoenicians had to learn how to become skilled craftsmen to earn a living and to produce many of the goods that they sold in their markets. The citizens of Tyre also worked in the manufacturing industries, or they were hired sailors who helped to man vessels along the trade routes. Tyre was famous for having so many merchants and businessmen since finance, and business-related occupations dominated the country.

The inhabitants of Tyre also traded with land lock countries such as Israel. When King Solomon was building a temple for God he received many of his supplies from the King Hiram of Tyre (see 2 Samuel 5:11 and 1 Kings 5:1). King Hiram of Tyre was an ally to King David before he had died. This relationship carried over to Solomon after his death.


Wars of Alexander the Great: Siege of Tyre

The Siege of Tyre took place from January to July 332 BC during the Wars of Alexander the Great (335-323 BC).

Macedonians

Siege of Tyre - Background:

Having defeated the Persians at Granicus (334 BC) and Issus (333 BC), Alexander the Great swept south along the Mediterranean coast with the ultimate goal of moving against Egypt. Pressing on, his intermediate goal was to take the key port of Tyre. A Phoenician city, Tyre was situated on an island approximately half a mile from the mainland and was heavily fortified. Approaching Tyre, Alexander attempted to gain access by requesting permission to make a sacrifice at the city's Temple of Melkart (Hercules). This was refused and the Tyrians declared themselves neutral in Alexander's conflict with the Persians.

The Siege Begins:

Following this refusal, Alexander dispatched heralds to the city ordering it to surrender or be conquered. In response to this ultimatum, the Tyrians killed Alexander's heralds and threw them from the city walls. Angered and eager to reduce Tyre, Alexander was faced with the challenge of attacking an island city. In this, he was further hampered by the fact that he possessed a small navy. As this precluded a naval assault, Alexander consulted his engineers for other options. It was quickly found that the water between the mainland and the city was relatively shallow until shortly before the city walls.

A Road Across the Water:

Using this information, Alexander ordered the construction of a mole (causeway) that would stretch across the water to Tyre. Tearing down the remains of the old mainland city of Tyre, Alexander's men began building a mole that was approximately 200 ft. wide. The early phases of construction went smoothly as the city's defenders were unable to strike at the Macedonians. As it began to extend farther into the water, the builders came under frequent attack from Tyrian ships and the city's defenders who fired from atop its walls.

To defend against these assaults, Alexander constructed two 150 ft.-tall towers topped with catapults and mounting ballistas to drive off enemy ships. These were positioned at the end of the mole with a large screen stretched between them to protect the workers. Though the towers provided the needed defenses for construction to continue, the Tyrians quickly devised a plan to topple them. Constructing a special fire ship, which was weighted down aft to raise the bow, the Tyrians attacked the end of the mole. Igniting the fire ship, it rode up onto the mole settling the towers ablaze.

The Siege Ends:

Despite this setback, Alexander endeavored to complete the mole though he became increasingly convinced that he would need a formidable navy to capture the city. In this, he benefited from the arrival of 120 ships from Cyprus as well as another 80 or so that defected from the Persians. As his naval strength swelled, Alexander was able to blockade Tyre's two harbors. Refitting several ships with catapults and battering rams, he ordered them anchored near the city. To counter this, Tyrian divers sortied out and cut the anchor cables. Adjusting, Alexander ordered the cables replaced with chains (Map).

With the mole nearly reaching the Tyre, Alexander ordered catapults forward which began bombarding the city walls. Finally breaching the wall in the southern part of the city, Alexander prepared a massive assault. While his navy attacked all around Tyre, siege towers were floated against the walls while troops attacked through the breach. Despite fierce resistance from the Tyrians, Alexander's men were able to overwhelm defenders and swarmed through the city. Under orders to slay the inhabitants, only those who took refuge in the city's shrines and temples were spared.

Aftermath of the Siege of Tyre:

As with most battles from this period, casualties are not known with any certainty. It is estimated that Alexander lost around 400 men during the siege while 6,000-8,000 Tyrians were killed and another 30,000 sold into enslavement. As a symbol of his victory, Alexander ordered the mole to be completed and had one of his largest catapults placed in front of the Temple of Hercules. With the city taken, Alexander moved south and was forced to lay siege to Gaza. Again winning a victory, he marched in Egypt where he was welcomed and proclaimed pharaoh.


“Tyre was rebuilt”

The city of Tyre, though it was largely destroyed, recovered and was rebuilt after its structures had been razed.

This page analyzes one evidence:

This suggests the prophecy was not fulfilled, because verses 13-14 and verses 19-21 had said that that Tyre will be ‘built no more’, which seems to directly contradict the existence of a settlement there today. 1

  1. Ezekiel 26:13 -- “I will silence the sound of your songs, and the sound of your harps will be heard no more.” 26:19-21 -- “When I make you a desolate city, like the cities which are not inhabited, when I bring up the deep over you and the great waters cover you, then I will bring you down with those who go down to the pit, …but I will set glory in the land of the living. “I will bring terrors on you and you will be no more though you will be sought, you will never be found again,

Tyre Timeline - History

Caanan was a descendant of Ham and his descendants are Caananites.
Abram was a descendant of Shem and jouneyed to Caanan, his descents went Egypt and exodet from there to Canan, where they were known as Yisralites
Japhet was brother to Ham and Shem , all are sons of Noa that came through the Flood.

There is a problem with all of the articles relating the recent dna analysis of Lebanese and its relevance to the story of the conflict between the ancient Israelitses and Canaanites in the Bible. Ancient Canaan encompassed the whole of the Levant between Asia Minor and Egypt and all the inhabitants called themselves Canaanite (kn’ni). But the Bible story relates only the southern half of Canaan, called “Palestine” by the Greeks but not the natives, where Israel and Judah were located. It has nothing to say about the northern half, called “Phoenicia” by the Greeks but not the natives, which is roughly modern Lebanon. To the extent that it the Bible has anything to say or indicates much knowledge of northern Canaan, its inhabitants are not seen as enemies to be exterminated. On the contrary, the Canaanite ruler of Tyre, Hiram, is an ally of Soloman who helped in the building of the Temple. So the fact that they were not exterminated by the Israelites tells us nothing. More to the point is the genetic evidence that present-day Jews, like present-day Palestinians, are descended from the previous inhabitants of “Palestine” – that is, Canaanites. The “Children of Israel” were in fact Canaanites who for some reason wished to radically differentiate themselves from their own ancestors and did so by calling themselves Hebrews who originated elsewhere and claiming to have been brought out of Egypt by their god, IHWH, and conquered the land he promised them. The Hebrews were most likely themselves Canaanites, but nomadic pastoralists rather than settled farmers or townspeople who regarded them rather as nomadic Gypsies and Travellers are now regarded. It seems likely that this was their way of establishing themselves as a nation, separate from (and superior to) all others, bolstered by their adoption of a new religion profoundly different from that of their Canaanite ancestors.

Why is my Sept. 3 comment still “awaiting moderation” on Sept. 5?

There are actually people in 2018 who think human races are descended from the sons of Noah?? Come on, this “Arthur” must be an atheist who wrote this post to make religious people look like idiots!

To make it explicit, those we call Phoenician are identical to those we call Canaanites, we have no real idea what they called themselves.

Cannanites were not semitic people as your article says. Remember Canaan is the son of Ham, not Shem. Semitic people emanate from the lineage of Shem and not Ham. Canaanites are what we refer to as Hamites. Ham had 4 sons Mizraim (Egyptians), Phut (Lybians), Cush (Ethiopia) and Canaan (Original inhabitants of the land of Israel). The Zondervan Bible Dictionary tells us that Ham was the progenitor of Black people but not the Negros. Therefore all Ham’s lineage is traced through his 4 sons who are all Black people.

The reason why the Bible Dictionary differentiates between the Hamites and the Negroes is because they are Shemites from the line of Shem. Yes both groups are Black people but with a different progenitor.

The reason why you find a mixed race of people in Egypt and in all other countries of the sons of Ham today is because one of the policies of Alexandra the Greek after he conquers a country, he would flood that country with his own people, the Romans in order to enforce racial intermingling. I am sure in his mind, he was eradicating the original Black inhabitants of such countries. So that when you look at it independently, you begin to think about this as genocide.

The Shemites/Hebrews/Israelites eventually took over the land of Canaan. The land of the son of Ham called Canaan. In this case it was one race of black people taking the land of another race of black people. And eventually a race of white people Eastern European Khazars, took over the land of the Shemites and under false pretenses called themselves Shematic/Jewish/Israeli. The reason why they do not call themselves Israelites is because they are not the descendants of Abraham. They just stole that identity from the real Shemites.

I’m confused. If they came from Ham, how could they be other then black? Is it being said that the Bible is wrong?

I have also read that the Canaanites were black. DNA results would certainly have indicated that.

Someone above asked, “How are Canaanites connected to Africans?”

Probably many way if there is a shared heritage between residents of Sidon (and Tyre) and the overseas colonies these cities established and the people of
Canaan.

Carthage, for example, was a Phoenician colony. Hiram of Tyre was a contemporary of Solomon, but the Carthage located in present day Tunisia probably was founded after the 10th century BC. Moreover, it’s not the only Phoenician colony that was established in the western Mediterranean. A number of them, such as Cartagena in Spain were founded by Phoenicians or else became colonies of Carthage. Marseille,( I just thought I’d check first) as it turns out was founded by Greeks in the 7th century BC.

Analogous to England and its New World colonies, Carthage expanded on the
north coast of Africa into a number of coastal settlements, plus southern Spain.
We know little ( or else little survives) about the Carthaginians save through the eyes of Roman historians such as Livy an Polybius who chronicled the Punic Wars and their roots. But the bottom line from the wikipedia was this:

“The Carthaginians were Phoenician settlers originating in the Mediterranean coast of the Near East. They spoke Canaanite, a Semitic language, and followed a local variety of the ancient Canaanite religion.”

Having recently read an account of the Battle of Cannae, Carthaginian names
drives the point home: Hannibal, Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, Hanno… Contemplating the issue of links even closer to the Bible, such as Hebrew, I was inclined to ask myself: Just what does that prefix “Ha” denote?

Evidently it is not a definite article. Hannibal roughly means “the grace of Baal”.
But the Barca family ( Note: Barcelona – possibly named by Hamilcar, but Romans claim differently) can be connected with other East Mediterranean root languages, for example, as follows:

“Barca (, QRB) was the surname of his aristocratic family, meaning “shining” or “lightning”, thus equivalent to the Arabic name Barq or the Hebrew name Barak.

Hamilcar, Hannibal’s father: his name is a reference to someone else too, “brother of Melqart”.

Paradoxically, we have an one side an argument for the stability for gene pools in the Mediterranean East based on population studies in Lebanon. But on the other hand, we have linguistic evidence for dispersion based on establishment of colonies in west on the coasts of Africa and Europe.

Unfortunately the media’s reaction to this genetic study has been to give the misleading impression that when the Israelites “invaded” Canaan, the Canaanites escaped Israelite “genocide” , and fled to Lebanon, and that the modern Lebanese are the descendants of those Canaanite refugees.
Nothing could be further from the truth, and it’s a pity the results of this important study have been twisted by the media.

First, the Canaanite samples were taken from ancient graves in Sidon, which makes them PHOENICIAN, i.e. the northern Canaanites who were native to Phoenicia, in present-day Lebanon.
Second, as the authors note in the study, they used Lebanese CHRISTIAN DNA samples to represent modern Lebanese population, since they had found this group to be more genetically isolated than other Lebanese groups.
Third, and in perhaps most critically to the field of Biblical archeology, the authors made the following observation:

” PCA shows that Sidon_BA clusters with three individuals from Early Bronze Age Jordan (Jordan_BA) found in a cave above the Neolithic site of ‘Ain Ghazal and probably associated with an Early Bronze Age village close to the site. This suggests that people from the highly differentiated urban culture on the Levant coast and inland people with different modes of subsistence were nevertheless genetically similar, supporting previous reports that the different cultural groups who inhabited the Levant during the Bronze Age, such as the Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites, and Phoenicians, each achieved their own cultural identities but all shared a common genetic and ethnic root with the Canaanites.”

The traditional history regarding the origins of the Phoenicians as recorded by Herodotus and by Arab historians is that they were descended from people who migrated from the eastern part of the Arabian peninsula. The modern Arab population of the Levant also originates from the Arabian peninsula. So yes they do indeed derive from a “Canaanite-related population” this is the known history. To conclude they this means that they are direct descendants of the Canaanites is disingenuous.

Genetics shows that the closest group to Middle Eastern Jews are Palestinians…..

They’re all descendants from the Canaanites.

Blood Brothers: Palestinians and Jews Share Genetic Roots
Jews break down into three genetic groups, all of which have Middle Eastern origins – which are shared with the Palestinians and Druze.
read more: http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/1.681385

To S: Israel is the only democratic country that one can walk to from Africa. There is a current constant flow of Africans escaping to Israel today. Also, African connections include the 400 years in Egypt ( North Africa), where they went to escape drought in Canaan, and were eventually enslaved. Another connection to Africa is the story that Moses first went south and his first wife was African. Thirdly there is the Soloman and Queen of Sheba connection, she returned to Ethiopia with Solomon’s child in her belly, and that child was the first king of Ethiopia.

The few Canaanites who survived Joshua assimilated into Israelite society. Today’s Palestinians are descendants of the Ottomans who were Turkish and controlled the area from 1299 to 1923 when British rule took over. this is well documented history.

How are Canaanites connected to Africans?

Since Sidon is in Lebanon, one would have to wonder what the DNA is compared to Phoenicians, also a Semitic people. We know that the Jews had friendly relations with Phoenicia and that biblical borders certainly didn’t extend into what is now Lebanon. I believe the authors may have brought the Bible into this report just to get publicity.

We need to think logically. This study shows a connection between some ancient Canaanites and some modern Lebanese. Does such a connection prove that a neighboring people, the Palestinians, have no familial relationship with the Canaanites? Samozrejme, že nie. We have to be careful not to let our preconceived opinions interfere with our understanding of science.

It would be very interesting to know whether the DNA of the Arabs of Gaza, Judea and Samaria have any relationship to the historic “natives” of those areas such as the Jews.

The DNA analysis suggests that it is the modern-day Lebanese population that can trace its origins back to the Canaanites. That said, the author’s theory would therefore negate the claims made by the so called political “Palestinians”. Perhaps science trumps false claims!


The History of Car Tyres

Your car tyres are one of the most important components of your vehicle, particularly from a safety perspective. In recent years, there have been numerous technological advancements to enhance the safety, durability and mileage of your car. But how has the tyre developed over history? And how did your car tyres get to where they are today? Courtesy of Lindley’s Autocentres, your number one tyre centre in Nottingham, here is a brief history of the car tyre and how some of the biggest names in car tyres, helped to make them what they are today.

1839: Charles Goodyear Invents Vulcanised Rubber

Goodyear is a big name in car tyres, one which dates back to its earliest inception. The invention of vulcanised rubber by Charles Goodyear had huge ramifications on the manufacture of goods. It was durable, moldable and it paved the way for the first rubber tyres.

1846: Robert Thompson Patents the Vulcanised Rubber Pneumatic Tyre

Although Charles Goodyear is credited with the invention of the material, it was Robert Thompson who first applied the material to the manufacture of pneumatic tyres. However, there is a reason you may not be as familiar with the name Thompson as with others on this list, largely because in 1846 the motor car had not yet been invented. Indeed it would be another 40 years before the manufacture of pneumatic tyres would begin in earnest.

1888: John Dunlop invents the Vulcanised Rubber Pneumatic Tyre

In an effort to improve the comfort of his son’s bicycle, John Dunlop invented the vulcanised rubber pneumatic tyre, without realising the same invention had been patented over forty years previously by Robert Thompson. After a legal battle with Thompson, Dunlop founded the Dunlop Rubber Company which he later sold for very little profit.

1891: The Michelin Brothers Invent Detachable Rubber Tyres for Bicycles

Another big name in Tyre Manufacture, Edouard and Andre Michelin, made use of a new patent by CK Welsh which allowed tyres to be bolted on to the wheel rim. In this year, Andre Michelin was also the first to attach rubber tyres to a motor car.

1903: Paul Weeks Litchfield Patents the Tubeless Tyre

1904: Mountable Introduced to Motor Cars

Combined with tubeless tyres, the introduction of the mountable rim to motor cars was the first time in history a motorist was able to change a tyre themselves.

1908: Frank Seiberling Invents Grooved Tyres

With motor cars becoming faster and more and more cars hitting the road, the focus shifted towards road safety. Grooved tyres provided greater traction on the road, improving driver safety.

1910: BF Goodrich adds Carbon to Tyre Rubber to Lengthen the Life of the Tyre

1911: Phillip Strauss Invents the First Successful Automobile Tyre

Although Rubber Tyres had been used on motor cars since 1895, it wasn’t until Phillip Strauss combined an inflatable inner tube with a galvanised rubber outer tyre that the car tyre first achieved commercial success.

1937: BF Goodrich Invents the First Synthetic Rubber Tyres

27 years after adding carbon to the rubber, BF Goodrich, using a patented substance called Chemigum was able to manufacture the first synthetic rubber car tyres.

1948: Michelin Patents the Radial Tyre

Michelin were the first to produce steel-belted radial tyres, providing greater durability and mileage for the motorist.

1974: Pirelli Produce the Wide Radial Tyre

Another big name in tyre manufacture, Pirelli, were the first to produce wide radial tyres. These provided greater durability and a more even tread wear.

Over the years that followed, tyres have undergone numerous changes in terms of the synthetic makeup of the rubber and the overall design of the tyre and continue to be developed by the big names who were pivotal in the shaping of the tyre throughout history.

Lindley’s Autocentres in Nottingham stock a wide range of tyres including those manufactured by the big names in tyre development, providing a combination of quality, durability and safety. If you’re looking for new tyres for your car, speak to Lindley’s today. Contact us here or pop into one of our Nottingham Autocentres to speak to us about our range of car tyres.


History of Tires

The wheel was invented around 3500 BC, becoming one of man’s greatest innovations. In its earliest form, the wheel was a curved piece of wood. Leather was eventually added to make the ride softer. Over time, the leather was replaced by rubber. The original rubber tire was solid rubber, without air, and was used by slow-speed vehicles.

Benz invented the first gasoline car in 1888, fitted with metal tires covered with air-filled rubber. This was the beginning of the pneumatic tire, which was first seen by the public in a Paris-Bordeaux-Paris automobile race. The tread tire was introduced in 1905. The tread was designed to protect the tire carcass from direct contact with the road. It also improved the tire friction coefficient.

The 1920s saw the development of tire materials. The DuPont Company industrialized synthetic rubber in 1931, allowing the increase in tire production, which used to be dependent on natural rubber. Synthetic rubber ushered in a turning point in tire production. The balloon tire, a low-pressure tire that had a greater contact area with the road surface, was introduced in 1923.

Tubeless tires were developed in 1947 in an attempt to relieve the high cost of oil prices. Tubeless tires contributed to the reduction of the vehicle’s weight, allowing for a significant savings in fuel costs.
The first winter tires or snow tires were introduced in Finland in 1934 when Nokian made tire trucks that were designed for handling stormy weather.

The radial tire was invented in the 1950s. It is a type of tire with the cords and carcass plies arranged vertically to the driving direction. The radial tires turned out to have better fuel economy compared to other tires. They provided uniform contact of the tread with the road surface. This offered good driving stability, even at high speeds.

The run-flat tire was developed in 1979. It allowed vehicles to continue driving up to 50 miles at 50 mph with a punctured tire. Several types of tires were designed later, including eco-friendly tires as well as the Ultra High Performance tire. UHP tires have diameters greater than 16 inches and allow for superior cornering, braking, and drivability. Currently, tire companies are working on a non-pneumatic tire created from a uni-material that can be reused or recycled.

If you’re in the market for new tires, check out a Utah tire store near you. Ask about the best type of tire for your vehicle, including tires for Utah winters. Your local dealer can point you to the latest in winter tires.

Want to know more about the tires your cars currently have? You can find it with this infographic. It discusses tires from the beginning of time, its transformation in the 19th century up to these days. The purpose is still the same but the changes show how people innovate it to ensure its maximum usage and performance.


Pozri si video: 002 Jak počítáme čas (Septembra 2022).


Komentáre:

  1. Jadon

    Je škoda, že teraz nemôžem hovoriť - nie je voľný čas. I will be released - I will definitely express my opinion.

  2. Ker

    Plne zdieľam jej názor. Páči sa mi tvoj nápad. Ponúknite všeobecnú diskusiu.

  3. Kipp

    I - this opinion.

  4. Darrance

    Myslím, že som sa pomýlil.

  5. Konnyr

    Zaujímavé, ale stále by som sa o tom chcel dozvedieť viac. Páčilo sa mi článok! :-)



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