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Kláštor Rozhen

Kláštor Rozhen


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Kláštor Rozhen je stredoveký kláštor s nádherným výhľadom na bulharský región Pirin, ktorý je údajne najväčší v tejto oblasti. Aj keď veľká časť kláštora Rozhen pochádza z 18. storočia, existujú dôkazy o tom, že existoval už v roku 890 n. L.

Kláštor Rozhen, ktorý stojí na hore, sa zdá byť postavený tak, aby sa rozplýval v jeho okolí. Kláštor sa v priebehu storočí vyvíjal a v 14. storočí bol kláštor Rozhen známy svojou kaligrafickou školou. Napriek tomu je jedným z najznámejších aspektov kláštora Rozhen jeho kostol Narodenia Matky Božej, postavený tiež v stredoveku.

V 17. storočí bola veľká časť kláštora Rozhen zničená požiarom a v neskorších 17. a 18. storočí prešla renováciou. Dnes môžu návštevníci kláštora Rozhen vidieť výsledky týchto renovácií vrátane nádherných drevorezieb a nástenných malieb, z ktorých niektoré sa zachovali z 15. storočia. Pôsobivé je aj jeho farebné sklo, ktoré patrí k najstarším v krajine.

Neďaleko sa nachádza pohrebisko bulharského revolučného vodcu Yane Sandanského, ktorý zomrel neďaleko kláštora Rozhen 22. apríla 1915.

Táto stránka je tiež jednou z našich desiatich najlepších turistických atrakcií v Bulharsku.


Kláštor Rozhen - história

Prítomnosť františkánov vo Svätej zemi siaha až k samotnému pôvodu Rádu menších bratov, ktorý bol založený sv. Františkom z Assisi v roku 1209. V roku 1217 bola provincia Svätej zeme založená, keď generálna kapitula rozdelila rád. do niekoľkých provincií.

Provincia Svätej zeme zahŕňala miesto, kde sa narodil Kristus, kde vykonával svoju službu a kde zomrel a bol vzkriesený. Z tohto dôvodu bola Provincia Svätej zeme považovaná za klenot medzi ostatnými provinciami. Sám sv. František zostal vo Svätej zemi v rokoch 1219-1220 niekoľko mesiacov.

V roku 1291 sa mesto Saint-Jean-d’Acre, posledná zostávajúca križiacka bašta, dostalo do moslimských rúk. Františkáni našli útočisko na Cypre. Pápež Ján XXII. Povolil provinciálnemu ministrovi Svätej zeme každoročne poslať na sväté miesta dvoch bratov. Napriek ťažkostiam, menší bratia pokračovali vo vykonávaní všetkých možných foriem apoštolátu.

Až v roku 1333 došlo k definitívnemu návratu menších bratov do Svätej zeme s legálnym vlastníctvom určitých svätých miest a právom na používanie pre ostatných. Prostredníctvom františkána Rogera Guerina získali od egyptského sultána miesto večeradla a právo celebrovať liturgie v Kostole Božieho hrobu. Zistilo sa, že menší bratia budú tieto práva vykonávať v mene kresťanského sveta.

Tento projekt schválil v roku 1342 pápež Klement VI. S býkmi Gratias Agimus a Nuper Carissimo. Od tej doby sa zistilo, že bratia pridelení do Svätej zeme môžu pochádzať z ktorejkoľvek provincie rádu a keď budú v službe Svätej zeme, budú pod jurisdikciou otca Custosa, „strážcu hory Sion v r. Jeruzalem. ”

V roku 1623 bola provincia Svätej zeme reorganizovaná na niekoľko menších subjektov nazývaných opatrovníci. Tak vznikla Opatrovanie Svätej zeme.

Menší bratia sú teda oficiálnymi strážcami svätých miest na základe túžby a na žiadosť univerzálnej cirkvi. Na túto skutočnosť pripomenul pápež Pavol VI., Prvý pápež od svätého Petra, ktorý navštívil Svätú zem. Potvrdil to pápež Ján Pavol II. Počas svojej púte počas Veľkého jubilejného roku 2000 n. L.

Apoštolát väzby sa dnes vykonáva v týchto krajinách: Izrael, Palestína, Jordánsko, Sýria, Libanon, Egypt a ostrovy Cyprus a Rhodos. V týchto krajinách je prítomných asi 300 bratov, ktorí spolupracujú s približne 100 sestrami z rôznych zborov. Františkáni slúžia hlavným svätyniam vykúpenia vrátane Svätého hrobu, narodenia v Betleheme a zvestovania v Nazarete, ktoré sú hrdé na svoje miesto. Táto práca sa rozrástla o podporu škôl a misií vo Svätej zemi, ako aj starostlivosť o utečencov a ďalších núdznych ľudí v celom regióne


Kláštor Rozhen

Bulharsko je krajinou starodávnej histórie a tradícií. Historici hovoria, že v každej malej skale je kus histórie. V dnešnej dobe krajina odhaľuje svoju majestátnosť a krásu bohatými múzejnými a lsquosovými výstavami. Hlavnými centrami kultúry a tradícií sú kláštory.

Jeden z najväčších bulharských kláštorov je kláštor Rozhen. Budova sa nachádza v regióne pohorie Pirin. Kláštor sa nachádza v blízkosti Melniku a najmenšieho mesta v Bulharsku. Iba 1 km. oddeľuje chrám od dediny Rozhen. Každý rok toto miesto navštívi veľa turistov z Grécka. Kláštor je vzdialený 16 km. ďaleko od Sandanského. História chrámu súvisí s gréckou históriou. Podľa historikov bol názov múzea prvýkrát nájdený v gréckej historickej knihe z XIII. Storočia. Dátum založenia budovy bohužiaľ neexistuje. Bulharská história nám hovorí, že v tejto dobe vládol v oblasti Melnika synovec kráľa Kalojana Slav. Mnoho historikov si myslí, že synovec kráľa a lsquosa nariadil stavbu kláštora. Zaujímavý fakt o chráme nám hovorí, že to bol jediný obnovený kláštor v čase prítomnosti Osmanskej ríše na Balkáne. Svätá budova mala v priebehu storočí šancu prežiť. V XVIII a XIX storočí bol kláštor známym centrom bulharských rebelov. Dnes je budova hrdá na to, že môže návštevníkom predstaviť svoje jedinečné fresky a vyrezávané ikonostasy. Drevorezby a vitráže prinášajú kláštoru medzinárodnú slávu. Jednou zo skutočností, ktoré robia stavbu tak slávnou a jedinečnou, je budova kláštora a lsquos. Všetky boli postavené v rôznych časových obdobiach. Najdôležitejšie z nich sú XVI., XVII. A XIX. Storočie. Kláštorná a lsquosská jedáleň bola dokončená v XVI. Storočí. Na konci XVII. Storočia bola pripravená časť nástennej dekorácie. Koniec koncov, v XIX storočí dostal kláštor kostolnú vežu.

Ak sa rozhodnete podniknúť výlet do kláštora Rozhen, musíte vedieť, že miesto neponúka hosťom izby ani jedlo. Mesto Melnik vás však stretne s čarovnou prírodou a priateľskými ľuďmi.


Kláštor Rozhen - história

História kláštora Iviron, ktorý založili Gruzínci na hore Athos v rokoch 980-983, je jedným z najdôležitejších zdrojov, ktoré odrážajú prítomnosť Gruzínska v kláštore, ako aj gruzínsko-byzantské a neskôr gruzínsko-osmanské vzťahy.

Cieľom výskumného projektu, ktorý som realizoval vo Výskumnom centre Univerzity Koc pre anatolské civilizácie, bolo zamerať sa na samotný aspekt histórie Ivironu. Mojím cieľom bolo vyhľadať, spracovať a preložiť pramene zachované v istanbulských archívoch a pripraviť základ pre ďalšie akademické štúdium týchto dôležitých dokumentov.

Prostredníctvom navrhovaného článku je akademickej komunite po prvýkrát ponúknutá príležitosť vykonávať výskum nezávisle pomocou uvedených osmanských zdrojov a ich prekladov.

Dokumenty, ktoré som preskúmal v Osmanskom archíve úradu predsedu vlády a rsquos v Istanbule, pochádzajú z rokov 1850-1911. Patrí sem sedem priečinkov a tridsať dokumentov a štyri z nich sú napísané v gréčtine.

Dokumenty, ktoré sú tu predložené, popisujú hlavne nešťastný stav kláštora Iviron, pramene naznačujú jeho dlhy voči niektorým jednotlivcom, zmocnenie sa krajiny, konflikt s Bulharmi a útok na kláštor.

  1. Dokument týkajúci sa sporného pozemku v Melniku, vo vlastníctve kláštora Iviron na hore Athos ktorá mala byť odovzdaná Bulharom (BEO 3875- B & AcircB- & Icirc & AcircLI EVRAK ODASI- komora Veľkovezíra a Osmanskej štátnej rady), z roku 1911
  2. Dokument o spornom pozemku v okrese Gilimrie v Solúne (C.ML CEVDET MALİYE - financie)
  3. Dokument o potlačení útoku otcov kláštora Iviron na lovnom mieste otcov kláštora Hilandar v okrese Sidre Kapi v Solúne (HR.MKT- HARİCİYE NEZARETİ MEKTUBİ KALEMİ EVRAKI - evidencia korešpondenčného oddelenia, zahraničného úradu) zo dňa 1850
  4. Dokument o útoku na kláštor Iviron, kde boli mnísi napadnutí a okradnutí (TFR. 1. M & ndash RUMELİ M & UumlFETTİŞLİĞİ M & UumlTEFERRİK EVRAKI - dokumenty o rôznych výdavkoch dozorného oddelenia Rumeli), datovaný 1906
  5. Zistenia komisie spresňujúce, že opustený pozemok Aladyave v regióne Cassandra nepatril kláštoru Iviron (TFR. 1. M & ndash RUMELİ M & UumlFETTİŞLİĞİ M & UumlTEFERRİK EVRAKI - dokumenty o rôznych výdavkoch dozorného oddelenia Rumeli), datované 1902
  6. Dokument o žiadosti Vangeli & rsquos týkajúci sa vymáhania dlhu od kláštora Iviron na hore Athos (TFR.1. ŞKT - RUMELİ M & UumlFETTİŞLİĞİ ARZUHALLER & ndash vyhlásenia dozorného oddelenia Rumeli) z roku 1908
  7. Vyjadrenie Vangeli & rsquos predložené súdu, v ktorom bola špecifikovaná žiadosť o zrýchlené súdne konanie za účelom vymoženia dlhu od kláštora Iviron (TFR.1. ŞKT- RUMELİ M & UumlFETTİŞLİĞİ ARZUHALLER- vyjadrenia dozorného oddelenia Rumeli) zo dňa 1908.

Prevažná časť dostupných zdrojov je roztrieštená iba na rozprávanie o epizódach udalostí, ktoré sa stali na hore Athos. Na obnovenie celého obrazu je potrebné získať zdroje týkajúce sa uvedených miest, udalostí a jednotlivcov. Turecký archívny systém bohužiaľ nie je dobre štruktúrovaný a organizovaný, pramene nie sú dostatočne usporiadané a katalóg je neúplný. Ďalšou výzvou, ktorá ešte viac komplikuje skúmanie tejto témy, je to, že sa výskum zameriava na kláštor a kresťanov, ktorí patria medzi citlivé otázky v Turecku.

Dnes predstavím akademickej obci prvú položku vyššie uvedených zdrojov (ktorú som preskúmal) týkajúcu sa sporného pozemku (metochion). Toto je päť prameňov kláštora Rozhen, ktorý sa nachádza v Mělníku (13. storočie od Hijriho).

Žiaľ, záznamy sú roztrieštené a neposkytujú úplný obraz o diskutovanom probléme. Chronologicky usporiadané pramene odhaľujú, že bulharskí otcovia kláštora Rozhen požadovali jeho návrat od gréckych otcov. Zdroje demonštrujú tureckú podporu Bulharom. Napríklad podľa guvernéra Solúna mali Gréci v tejto oblasti 78-80 kostolov, pričom bulharský kostol bol jediným miestom, kde Bulhari mohli vykonávať božskú službu. Zdôrazňuje sa, že grécki mnísi sa pokúšajú politizovať tento incident, ktorý môže podľa guvernéra Solúna viesť k napätiu medzi dvoma národmi a dokonca vyvolať vznik oblastí nepokojov. Telegram guvernéra Ibrahima ukazuje, že Gréci v rozpore so zákonom odmietli postúpiť cely kostola a ďalšie budovy Bulharom. Podľa jedného zo zdrojov napriek rozhodnutiu súdu o pridelení spornej cirkvi Bulharom otcovia Ivironu neuposlúchli rozhodnutie súdu tým, že zamkli dvere kostola a dali kľúč cudzímu mníchovi (ani gréckeho, ani bulharského pôvodu). Národnosť tohto & lquoforeign mnícha & rdquo bohužiaľ zostáva v zdroji nešpecifikovaná. Je potrebné poznamenať, že žiadny z prameňov, ktoré som preskúmal v archívoch, neuvádza gruzínske meno. Ďalej, namiesto kláštora Rozhen, vo všetkých zdrojoch sú uvedené formy & ldquoRozina & rdquo, & ldquoRoznia & rdquo alebo & ldquoRozen & rdquo. To isté platí pre gruzínsky kláštor: pramene uvádzajú päť rôznych foriem názvu, ako napríklad Ivirun, Iveriron, Iver, Ivirun a Iviro. Každý učenec, ktorý pracuje na osmanských prameňoch, si uvedomuje náročnosť správneho čítania cudzích toponym. Vzhľadom na špecifiká osmanskej turečtiny, ktorá je podobná arabskému spoluhláskovému písaniu, a tam, kde niektoré zo spoluhlások zodpovedajú dvom alebo niekedy piatim písmenám latinskej abecedy, konkrétne cudzie názvy a toponymy vždy obsahujú rôzne verzie.

V Osmanskom archíve úradu predsedu vlády a rsquo v Istanbule (Bashbakanlik arshivi) vedci neidentifikovali a opísali žiadny iný zdroj tejto metochióny. Rovnako katalóg neposkytuje žiadne podobné informácie.

Podľa zdrojov súd zrejme Grékom pridelil vlastníctvo pôdy, ktorá susedila s kostolom, ako aj cely vo vlastníctve cirkvi, ale Bulhari požadovali vrátenie tohto majetku. Podpora Osmanov a rsquo voči Bulharom je evidentná. Guvernér Ibrahim tvrdí, že okolo tejto cirkvi nie sú žiadni Gréci, čo je však menej pravdepodobné. Ako príklad sám guvernér uvádza počet gréckych cirkví.

Podľa týchto zdrojov nie je konečné rozhodnutie známe. Chronologicky usporiadaný pôvodný prameň z Istanbulu je dokumentom patriarchátu, ktorý vychádza z telegramu melníckeho metropolitu Emelianosa.

Telegram z 25. marca 1911 oznamuje odovzdanie kostola Rozhen Bulharom. Osmani, tajne od Grékov, sa zrejme rozhodli prenechať Bulharsku vlastníctvo roženskej cirkvi, čo naznačujú slová - & ldquoin porušenie cirkevného zákona & rdquo- uvedené v telegrame metropolity Emelianosa. Podľa všetkého nasledovala reakcia Grékov a rsquo, ktorá je zrejmá zo správ objavených Osmanmi a zaslaných Veľkovezírovi, ako sú zaznamenané v nižšie uvedených prameňoch.

Prepis osmanského textu:

Kópia telegramu patriarchátu zaslaného 25. marca 1911 metropolitom Emelianosom z Mělníka od Demira Hisara:

Podľa novín Rumelia bol maliarsky kostol Rozhen vo vlastníctve kláštora Iviron, ktorý nikdy nebol predmetom sporov, odovzdaný Bulharom.

Kópia iného telegramu odoslaného rovnakým metropolitom v ten istý deň:

Porušením cirkevného zákona je na príkaz solúnskeho miestodržiteľa kostol Bulharského kláštora v Rožene odovzdaný.

Podľa telegramu z 27. marca 1911 zaslaného solúnskym guvernérom Ibrahimom na ministerstvo spravodlivosti guvernér upozorňuje ministerstvo na nevyhnutnosť prevodu rozenskej cirkvi na Bulharov, pretože uvedená oblasť sa už roky stáva predmetom nezhody .

& ldquo Okrem toho sa okolo tohto kostola nezhromažďujú žiadni grécki jednotlivci, hoci je jediným, ktorý majú Bulhari. Ako už bolo oznámené prostredníctvom telegramu, Gréci vlastnia 78-80 kostolov a niekoľko veľkých kláštorov. Miestnosti a prístavby patriace kostolu, okrem samotného kostola, by preto mali byť odovzdané Bulharom, pretože Gréci odmietajú Bulharom dovoliť používať tento majetok. Kým uvedený majetok nebude v majetku Grékov, kontroverzná otázka bude permanentne viesť k výzvam. V dôsledku toho sa táto otázka kláštora bude stupňovať, čo by sa nemalo tolerovať, aby sa páčilo patriarchátu. Podľa informácií (získaných nami) v tomto období Gréci na pokus o politizáciu tejto otázky pridelili na uvedené miesto cudzieho kňaza. Tešíme sa na vašu odpoveď, aby sme mohli problém & rdquo vyriešiť.

Tretím zdrojom je správa zaslaná ministerstvu pre občianske a náboženské otázky. Zaoberá sa odpoveďou prijatou v súvislosti s gréckou odpoveďou na otázku kláštora, ktorá už bola prevedená na Bulharov. Zdá sa, že Turci sa pokúšajú získať v tejto záležitosti prehľad, pričom však ponechávajú predchádzajúce rozhodnutie dočasne nezmenené, ako naznačuje správa. Treba poznamenať, že začiatok 20. storočia bol pre Osmanskú ríšu obzvlášť ťažkým obdobím, a to tak z hľadiska domácich, ako aj zahraničných okolností. V ťažkých časoch sa vyvolávanie sporov medzi národmi, najmä kvôli náboženským záležitostiam, mohlo stať pre Osmanský štát väčším problémom.

Ministerstvu pre občianske a náboženské otázky.

Kostol Rozhen v Melniku, ktorý je metochiónom kláštora Iviron na hore Athos, predstavuje predmet sporu. Grécky patriarchát uvádza, že prenos tejto metochióny na Bulharov sa v tomto ohľade stal naliehavou otázkou, prostredníctvom stretnutí a rozhovorov, ktoré sa konali vo vilayetskom Solúne, sa zistilo, že 15. marca 1327 (28. marca 1911), podľa podľa správ (č. 29), ktoré objavil veľkovezír, nebol tento kláštor vo vlastníctve kláštora Iviron ani metochion považovaný za miesto modlitby a podľa cirkevného práva a rozhodnutia verejného sudcu a rsquosa otázka Rozhena bola vyšetrovaná a usúdilo sa, že podlieha dočasnému rozhodnutiu.

Samotná správa č. 29 (o ktorej sa Veľkovezír dozvedel, ako je uvedené v zdroji vyššie) poskytuje stručný prehľad kontroverzného problému a na záver opisuje záujmy Osmanského štátu v tejto záležitosti, ako bolo uvedené vyššie.

Do vilayetu v Solúne bol doručený telegram, v ktorom sa uvádzalo, že 78-80 kostolov v Melniku bolo vo vlastníctve Grékov, zatiaľ čo vyššie uvedený kostol v Rozhene, o ktorý sa už dlho začalo diskutovať, bol jediným miestom modlitieb Bulharov. Podľa predchádzajúceho rozhodnutia súdu & rsquos bola sporná otázka vyriešená v prospech Bulharov s následnou kontrolou cirkvi, miestnosti (cely) a prístavby vo vlastníctve Cirkvi však zostali v gréckom vlastníctve.

Za týchto okolností nemožno problém považovať za vyriešený a problémy zostanú, preto by (tj bunky a prílohy) mali byť nevyhnutne a pokiaľ možno odovzdané Bulharom. Podľa telegramu odoslaného z úradu guvernéra a rsquosu v Solúne Gréci nainštalovali zámok na dvere kostola a vyslali zahraničného kňaza, čím prípadu dodali politický nádych. Preto si táto otázka vyžaduje okamžité vyriešenie, aby sa predišlo akémukoľvek poškodeniu vzťahu medzi týmito dvoma prvkami (t. J. Bulharmi a Grékmi) a aby sa zabránilo ich vzájomnej konfrontácii, čo dôrazne odporúčam zvážiť.

Na druhej strane, podľa predpisov atoských kláštorov majetok cirkví postihnutých problémom neprináša žiadne výhody pre obyvateľstvo a priestory, ako aj mníšske cely, ktoré tento kláštor vlastní, patria medzi jeho vlastníctvo a nemali by inak sa považujú za samostatný subjekt, ako je uvedené vo vyššie uvedených predpisoch. Potrebné opatrenia a rozhodnutie (vzhľadom na túto otázku) zostávajú veľkovezírovi.

Ministerstvo spravodlivosti a náboženstva. 28. marca 1911.

Posledný prameň (t. J. Zdroj č. 5), ktorý máme k dispozícii, pochádza z 20. marca 1327 (2. apríla 1911) a obsahuje rozhodnutie veľkovezíra. Znamená to, že dočasné rozhodnutie sa nepovažuje za prijateľné (m & uumlnasip g & oumlr & uumllmediğini), pretože cirkevný zákon sa nevzťahuje na kláštor a metochióny, keďže je tento región dosť odlišný, nepovažuje sa za miesto modlitby (údajne to znamená, že územne to nie je hora Athos). Malo by sa pokračovať v skúmaní tejto otázky a dočasné rozhodnutie by sa malo považovať za neprijateľné, o čom by mal byť informovaný príslušný orgán vo vilayete v Solúne. Preto v dôsledku údajného zásahu zo strany Grékov veľkovezír v priebehu len jedného týždňa stiahol rozhodnutie týkajúce sa odovzdania kostola kláštora Rozhen Bulharom.

Regulačnému orgánu pre občianske a náboženské záležitosti

Pretože odovzdanie majetku Bulharom sa stalo veľmi naliehavou otázkou, pokiaľ ide o sporné kostoly metochionu Rozinia pod kláštorom Iviron na hore Athos a v dôsledku diskusií s gréckym patriarchátom a zhromaždení v solúnskom vilayet , ako iste viete, cirkevný zákon sa nevzťahuje na kláštor a metochióny, vyššie uvedené miesta sú miestami rôzneho typu, a nie iba miestami modlitby. Preto je nevyhnutné ďalšie vyšetrovanie. Vilayet (Thessaloniki) by mal byť informovaný, že predmetná vec nemôže byť obmedzená na dočasné riešenie.

2. apríla 1911. Veľký vezír

Osmanské pramene bohužiaľ neposkytujú žiadny pohľad na to, čo sa stalo s kláštorom Rozhen, metochionom kláštora Iviron, pred pádom Osmanskej ríše. Našťastie ďalšie štúdie v tejto súvislosti objasnia históriu kláštora Iviron v osmanskom období, aby sa vyplnili medzery v histórii jedného z najdôležitejších gruzínskych centier vzdelávania v zahraničí.


Kláštor Rozhen, Mělník

Kláštor Rozhen Narodenia Matky Božej (bulharsky: Роженски манастир "Рождество Богородично", Rozhenski manastir "Rozhdestvo Bogorodichno", grécky: Μονή Ροζιernο in in the mountains, Moni Roz melnické zemské pyramídy. Je to jeden z mála stredovekých bulharských kláštorov, ktoré sú dodnes dobre zachované.

Najstarším archeologickým dôkazom stredovekého života na mieste je hrob s niekoľkými mincami a ozdobami z čias byzantského cisára Michala VIII. Palaiologosa (1259–1282). Niektoré ďalšie položky tiež pochádzajú z 13. storočia, zatiaľ čo mramorový vlys nad centrálnou bránou kostola pochádza z 13. alebo 14. storočia. V čase despota Alexia Slovana bolo v kláštore postavených niekoľko nových budov. Najstarším písomným prameňom svedčiacim o existencii kláštora je poznámka o chorálovej knihe z roku 1551, dnes v knižnici Veľkej lavry na hore Athos.

Kláštorný kostol bol postavený pred 15. storočím a vymaľovaný v roku 1597 sa zachovali niektoré z týchto fresiek. V roku 1611 bola natretá južná fasáda. Kláštor Rozhen bol v rokoch 1662 až 1674 zničený požiarom, ktorý zničil knižnicu a vážne poškodil väčšinu budov. Kláštor bol v nasledujúcom storočí obnovený s finančnou pomocou bohatých Bulharov z celej krajiny. Rekonštrukcia sa začala v roku 1715 a bola úplne dokončená v roku 1732.

Kláštor dosiahol svoj vrchol v 19. storočí, keď bol regionálnym centrom pravoslávneho kresťanstva a vlastnil v tejto oblasti veľa pôdy. V blízkosti kláštora sa nachádza hrob slávneho bulharského revolucionára Yana Sandanského.


Kláštor Rozhen - história

Miesto: Kláštor Rozhen sa nachádza v nížinách pohoria Pirin - jedného z najkrajších hôr na balkánskom polostrove. Kláštor sa nachádza 6 km od najmenšieho a mimoriadne malebného mesta v Bulharsku - Melnik. Z kláštora Rozhen sa môžete kochať nádherným výhľadom na blízke okolie a horské kopce.

História: Podľa letopisov zachovaných na hore Athos bol kláštor postavený v roku 890 a bol vyvinutý v období vlády despota Alexyho Slovana, vládcu regiónu za vlády cára Kaloyana (1197-1207). Bol zrekonštruovaný v roku 1715 a kostol, ktorý je súčasťou kláštora, bol dokončený v roku 1732. V XIX. Storočí dosiahol svätý kláštor vrchol svojej slávy a zmenil sa na regionálne kultúrne centrum.

Všeobecné informácie: Kláštor Rozhen je najväčší kláštor v regióne Pirin a je jedným z mála stredovekých bulharských kláštorov, ktoré sa zachovali dodnes. Kláštorný kostol „Narodenie Panny Márie“ existuje v súčasnej podobe od konca 18. storočia. Má tri kupoly, narthex a malú kaplnku na severnej strane. Práve tu je uložená najcennejšia relikvia v kláštore - zázračná ikona Panny Márie. Kláštorné budovy boli postavené v rôznych obdobiach. K najstarším patrí jedáleň mníchov, kostnica a niekoľko poľnohospodárskych budov, ktoré pochádzajú z obdobia pred veľkým požiarom kláštora v 17. storočí. Sviatok kláštora sa oslavuje 8. septembra, v deň Narodenia Matky Božej. V tento deň je zázračná ikona vynášaná na nádvorie, kde sa prichádzajú Panny Márie pokloniť tisíce veriacich. Kláštor Rozhen je dnes dobre udržiavaný a je otvorený pre návštevníkov po celý rok.

Relikvie a cennosti: V kláštore Rozhen sa zachovalo množstvo cenných nástenných malieb, skiel, ikon a unikátnych drevených vyrezávaných ikon. Niektoré z nich pochádzajú zo 16. - 18. storočia. Nástenné maľby, ktoré zdobia narthex hlavného kostola, sú najskoršie, pravdepodobne zo 16. storočia. Predstavujú predovšetkým skutky Ježiša Krista po jeho zmŕtvychvstaní. Tu je uložená bohatá zbierka ikon, ktoré sa datujú od 16. do 19. storočia. Najvýraznejšou z nich je ikona „Virgin Hodegetria“ (16. storočie), ktorá je umiestnená v ikonovom stánku kaplnky. Kláštorná zbierka obsahuje nádherné modely kostolných dosiek - kríže, plášť, svietniky, kadidelnice a ďalšie. Najstaršie predmety nachádzajúce sa v kláštore Rozhen pochádzajú už z 12. storočia - sú to dekorácie a mince z čias byzantského cisára Michala VIII. Palaeologa. Tu môžete vidieť známu ikonu Panny Márie, ktorá je uložená v arche v kaplnke „Svätých Kozmu a Damiána“.


Naša história

Na jeseň roku 1962, keď sa v Ríme začína II. Vatikánsky koncil, vstúpili do transatlantického zaoceánskeho parníka „Rotterdam“ štyri sestry z cisterciánskej komunity Panny Márie z Nazaretu v belgickom Brechte. Sestry, stále nosiace úplné návyky a závoje, smerovali do severnej Kalifornie, aby založili novú cisterciánsku komunitu.

Ich odchod, vrátane odchodu mladej a dynamickej abatyše z Nazaretu, M. Myriama Dardenna, bol významnou udalosťou v živote ich komunity, ktorá bola založená len pred dvanástimi rokmi.

Panna Mária Nazaretská, ktorá bola založená v reakcii na rastúci počet flámskych povolaní v čase, keď boli jediným cisterciánskym kláštorom pre ženy v Belgicku francúzsky hovoriaci, sa rýchlo rozrástla.

V roku 1960 bola komunita pripravená expandovať do zámoria.

Počiatočné plány smerovali do Afriky, do vtedajšieho belgického Konga (neskôr Zaire, teraz opäť Kongo). Na začiatku šesťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia však násilie a politická nestálosť situácie urobili krok nerealizovateľným. Sestry z Nazaretu sklamané hľadali alternatívne možnosti v Afrike alebo Latinskej Amerike. V roku 1961 prekvapivý návrh generálneho opáta rádu Dom Gabriela Sortaisa úplne zmenil smer ich hľadania. Návrh bol, že by mali založiť nový kláštor pre ženy v severnej Kalifornii, na majetku, ktorý bol darovaný rádu, práve na tento účel.

Po predbežnom preskúmaní tejto možnosti komunita v Nazarete návrh podporila. Veľkorysý finančný príspevok z opátstva Westmalle v Belgicku umožnil nový základ s dodatočnou podporou cisterciánskych domov amerického regiónu, bola založená Panna Mária Redwoods.

Všetky nové základy sú dobrodružstvom do neznáma a nebola to výnimka. Štyria na palube Rotterdamu museli zažiť kombináciu vzrušenia a strachu, ktorá sprevádza všetky veľké podniky. Po drsnom námornom prechode loď zakotvila v prístave v New Yorku a sestry sa vydali na ďalšiu časť svojej cesty naprieč kontinentom. Po niekoľkých zastávkach na ceste so svojimi cisterciánskymi bratmi a sestrami dorazili 31. októbra 1962 do kalifornského Whitethornu.

V tom čase bola oblasť v podstate nerozvinutá a málo osídlená. V súlade s najstaršími cisterciánskymi tradíciami bol nový základ zasadený do „divočiny“. Nováčikovia, zvyknutí na široké výhľady a skromné ​​lesy svojho prevažne plochého rodného Belgicka, čelili kopcovitej krajine a zdanlivo nekonečným lesom majestátnych sekvojí a douglasky. Napriek tomu, že tieto stromy vzbudzujú bázeň, vzbudzujú úžas, prispievajú k novému pocitu uzavretia a izolácie. Sestry nielenže nestáli pred výzvou naučiť sa nový jazyk, museli sa prispôsobiť životu v neznámej a znepokojivo divokej prírode.

Našťastie pre zakladateľky známa postava p. Roger de Ganck ich predbehol do Kalifornie. Roger, mních cisterciánskeho opátstva vo Westmalle v Belgicku, slúžil mnoho rokov ako kaplán komunity v Nazarete. Spisovateľ a učenec zbehlý v ranej histórii cistercitov, o. Roger súhlasil, že sa pripojí k novej nadácii ako ich kaplán.

Keď dorazili na tento priaznivý Halloween v roku 1962, sestry sa potešili, keď našli - už tvrdo pracujúce - niekoľko mníchov zo „susedného“ opátstva New Clairvaux v kine Vina. Puto lásky, ktoré spája naše dve komunity, je stále silné, ale v prvých rokoch bola pomoc mníchov vo Vine nepostrádateľná.

Bezprostrednou úlohou pred nimi bolo pripraviť priestory na plánovaný príchod ďalších ôsmich sestier z Nazaretu. Zatiaľ čo bratia pracovali na zveľaďovaní dočasných budov, sestry pracovali na vytváraní podmienok pre kláštorný život.

Prvý kostol bol rýchlo založený v malej sekvojovej kabíne, ktorá predtým slúžila ako knižnica bývalému majiteľovi nehnuteľnosti Bobovi Usherovi. Tu sa slávila božská kancelária a sestry sedeli oproti sebe v provizórnych zborových stánkoch.

Koncom šesťdesiatych rokov bol kláštor transformovaný. K pôvodnej štvorčlennej partii sa pridali ich nové sestry z Belgicka. Niektorí zostali, iní sa rozhodli vrátiť do svojej rodnej krajiny. Pre tých, ktorí zostali, sa proces enkulturácie zintenzívnil, keď americké mníšky začali vstupovať do komunity v Redwoods. V súlade s reformami Druhého vatikánskeho koncilu a obnovením cisterciánskeho rádu sa sestry rozhodli prijať a rozvíjať liturgiu v anglickom jazyku.

Hneď ako bolo jasné, že komunita tu zostane, začal sa stavebný program. Príslušne vzhľadom na najvyššiu mníšsku hodnotu pohostinstva bola prvou trvalou stavbou postavenou na pozemku penzión.

Tieto miestnosti boli postavené v roku 1964 a slúžia na príjem návštevníkov a na návštevu rodinných príslušníkov. The monastery and church, built in a style that honors simplicity while making ample use of the beauty of the surroundings, were ready to be blessed in 1967. The wood cabins that serve as living quarters for the sisters were completed in 1976.

Today, Whitethorn, California (where the monastery is located) is still a remote and beautiful area, known quite aptly as the Lost Coast. The nearest town, Redway-Garberville is a good forty minute drive down a narrow winding road while San Francisco, the closest metropolitan city to the monastery, lies more than 220 miles away.

"The fact remains that people are called to the monastic life, so that they may grow and be transformed, &lsquoreborn&rsquo to a new and more complete identity and to a more profoundly fruitful existence in peace, in wisdom, in creativity, in love."


The Rila Monastery

is located in 1147 meters altitude in the middle of the fragrant coniferous forests of Rila Mountain.

The monastery is a complex of cultural, dwelling and farming buildings which take about 8800 square meters. The Rila Monastery has an unique architecture. Outside, the monastery looks like a fortress. It has 24-meter stone walls which forms irregular pentagon. That’s why when some tourist enters the monastery’s yard from some of the two iron gates he is surprised by its architecture: arches and colonnades, covered wooden stairs and carved verandas and the 300-400 monastic cells. The Hreliov’s tower and the main church “The Nativity of the Virgin” cohabit at the center of the yard. This tower was created by the local feudal lord Hrelio in 1334-1335. A small church stays next to it and it is only a couple of years younger (1343). A bell-tower was added to the tower in 1844. The main church “The Nativity of the Virgin” was built in these times. Its architect is a master Peter Ivanovich, who worked on it in 1834-1837. The temple has five domes, three altars and two chapels. Maybe the most important thing in the church is the iconostasis which has incredible wood-carving. The wall-paintings were completed in 1846 by many masters from Bulgaria, but only Zahary Zagraph signed his paintings. In the church there are lots of icons created in XIV-XIX.

The monastery has also its own library which is very rich in literally material. There are stored lots of important Bulgarian written records – about 250 manuscript books from XI-XIX, 9000 old-printed books, manuscripts and so on. The museum, located in the monastery has a rich exposition – historical collection of 35 000 exponents, rich collections of icons, wood-carvings, cultural and ethnographical items. The museum has an unique work of art, called the Cross of Rafail. It is made of a whole piece of wood (81-43 centimeters) and it’s called to its creator. The monk used fine chisels, small knives and lentils to carve 104 religious stages and 650 small figures. It took him more than 12 years to complete his work. It’s completed in 1802 – then its creator lost his eyesight.

In spite of the big area which the monastery has, it is not able to show its treasures at the same time – that’s why there are lots of temporary expositions in the monastery and out of it.

The Rila Monastery was founded in the 30-th years of X century on the place of the Old Anchoress in Rila Mountain. While the monastery has been existing, it was many times rebuilt, destroyed and reconstructed. Today the Rila Monastery has had this appearance since the middle of the previous century. It is the biggest and the most respected Bulgarian monastery.

It is considered that the creator of the Rila Monastery is the first Bulgarian hermit Ivan Rilsky (876-946), he chose to live in this way as a method of spiritual perfection and a way to express his protest against the suppression of the high moral rules of the real Christianity. The Bulgarian saint was born in the 70-th years of IX century. He was a witness of the decline of the First Bulgarian Kingdom at the time of king Peter I and Saint Ivan Rilsky became the most respected saint in the Orthodox Christianity in that time. At the time of the Byzantine slavery the established brotherhood was turned into a monastery. At the beginning of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom the relics of Saint Ivan Rilsky was displaced to the capital of the country Veliko Tarnovo as the most important relic for the Bulgarians.

That the monastery has been existed for a millennium and that the Rila monks has been aware of the mission of books are the factors that produced the monastery library which can rival Europeans counterparts. The abundant collection comprise works that have been written in the monastery, works that have been commissioned to eminent men of letters and books and manuscripts that have been donated or bought.

Fot centuries the Rila Monastery has been the centre of intensive literacy activities. Outstanding educators, anonymous copyists, manuscript illuminators and book-binders spent years working there. As a result of their work today the library collection is one of the richest in the Balkans.

Among the men of letters who worked at the Rila Monastery were the grammarian Spiridon, hieromonk Anastasy, Vladislav Grammaticus, Nikifor, Yossif Bradati and the great National Revival educator and champion for secular education Neophit Rilski who brought to light all manuscripts, catalogued the library and invested a lot of effort to make it a public library which was open to the numerous pilgrims visiting the monastery.


The National Revival Period transformed the Rila Monastery into a major educational and cultural centre of the Bulgarian lands. The literary school evolved into an educational institution where some of the most prominent enlighteners of the nation received their education. The library opened its gates to inquisitive pilgrims and this is testified by the numerous marginal notes found in the old books. Thus very naturally it acquired the functions of a public library and paved the way to the community centre libraries which became very common during the National Revival.

The Rila Monastery Library manuscript collection comprises Slavic and Greek records dating from the 11th to mid-19th century. In addition to their literary merit these records have artistic merits. Most of them have illuminations which show the Bulgarian tradition in that art. It is noteworthy that despite the large number of service books in Greek, the monastery churches and chapels never heard service in Greek although it is evident the monks had good knowledge of the language which they could speak and in which they could read and write.

The Rila Monastery collection of printed books the earliest of which date from early 16th century comprises valuable items: a Tetraevangelia from 1512 that was published I Turgovishte, books that were printed in the Venice printing house which was established in 1619, many Russian old printed books, several of very rare editions that were printed in Vilno, of the Kievan-Pechora Laura, Moscow printed prologues.

The long history of the buildings in the Rila Monastery goes back to late 10th century when the monastic community that the Rila hermit had founded put up the first buildings not far from the cave which he occupied.

Since the 15th century and particularly during the Bulgarian National Revival the numbers of pilgrims increased significantly and a large group of service buildings appeared around the monastery. The reception buildings of the metochia and the sketae along the river Rilska where there were places associated with the patron saint’s worship were renovated during the same period. In this way several architectural ensembles appeared whose purpose was to provide shelter and also to prepare worshippers mentally for their encounter with the holiest place in Bulgaria.

The first thing that the visitors of the monastery see as they set foot on the Rila Mountain is the Orlitsa metochion which in the course of almost five centuries has been receiving pilgrims coming from the western parts of Bulgaria. In 1469 the Church of St. Peter and Paul was built to lay the relics of St. Ioan of Rila after they had been returned to the monastery. In 1491 a group of icon painters decorated the church which had been redesigned in 1478.

The next metochion which is closer to the monastery is called Pchelino. It was here that the Church of the Dormition of the Virgin was put up in the late 18th century and decorated with frescoes in 1835 by Dimiter Molerov.

The Hermitage of St. Ioan of Rila is northeast of the monastery and farthest. It stands where the cave in which the hermit lived is and where he was initially buried. For this reason the Church of the Assumption of St. Ioan of Rila was built in 1746. It is a single nave, single apse building with narthex. In 1820 it was rebuilt and became what it is today.

A path leads from the Hermitage to the monastery. Along the path there are several picturesque buildings built down a steep slope. This is the Steke of St. Luke, also known as the New hermitage. The oldest building here is the late 17th century Church of St. Luke the Evangelist. It was painted in 1798-1799 when carvers from Bansko carved wooden iconostasis. The surviving frescoes are a product of the Toma Vishanov's brush , called Molera from Bansko who had studied in the Central Europe and introduced baroque elements in the Bulgarian ecclesiastical art, creating expressive and ethereal paintings which were new for those times.

The second church of the ensemble, the Shroud of the Virgin, was put up in 1805 over the holy fountain by the builders Mihail and Radoitsa from the village of Rila. It has a large semi-open exonartes with an outdoor structure whose walls were painted by Toma Vishanov in 1811.


A small group of buildings that are enclosed by a stone wall is very near to the monastery. It includes the cemetery church and the monastery ossuary, several buildings with living premises and the monastery cemetery. The cemetery church of the Presentation of the Virgin where the brethren served their funeral service dates probably from the early 17th century. Like most medieval ossuaries it is on two levels and is a small lavishly decorated one-aisle church. Its frescoes from 1795 are characteristic of the style of a group of Bulgarian artists who worked on Mount Athos during the 18th and 19th centuries. Its iconostasis is noted for its elegant proportions and beautiful wood encarving.

Between the 10th and 14th centuries the Monastery changed places several times.

In the 14th century Hrelyo Dragovol, a feudal lord whose domain comprised the lands around the river Strouma, transformed the monastery into a solidly fortified and imposing architectural ensemble. This is proved by the remains of solid walls in the southwestern corner of the monastery courtyard unearthed during archeological excavations and also by the prominent tower which still stands in the courtyard and by the paintings in the monastery church built by the feudal lord and surviving until the mid-19th century.

Large-scale building work began some time during mid-18th century and after 1816 the monastery already had high solid residential buildings which enclosed the courtyard in the shape of an irregular quadrangle.

January 13, 1833 was one of the most tragic days in the long history of the monastery. The fire which broke out during the night destroyed almost completely the residential quarters. That was a national calamity and soon people began sending donations for the monastery’s restoration. Thousands of masons, carpenters and auxiliary workers arrived to work and did not get payment for their work. Only for a couple of years the buildings were restored.

Three Bulgarian master builders (purvomaistori) were in charge of the construction works whose scale was unprecedented in those times. They were Alexi from the village of Rila, called Alexi Rilets, who built the northern parts of the east and the west wings, Milenko from the village of Radomir who built the south wing ‘architecton’ Pavel from the village of Krimin who built the church which at the time was the largest in the Balkans. The decoration of the main church, the chapels and the visitors’ rooms was completed by 1870. at that time the monastery looked as we know it today.

The church of the Nativity of the Virgin is the monastery’s main church and the core of the architectural ensemble. Its construction began in 1835. That was an event of paramount importance for the entire Bulgarian nation. The innovative daring and the flexibility with which tradition has been interpreted in the architectural design of its imposing church reveals the nature of art during the National Revival Period.


This church building is unique in the Balkans. It was built by the then widely known master builder Pavel from the village of Krimin who had worked on Mount Athos and from where he borrowed the original spatial design of the church. The compositional scheme includes medieval elements and baroque spatial principles, an approach which distinguishes Bulgarian church architecture and whose features are observed in the art of the epoch.

The wall paintings in the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin were made by the most prominent Bulgarian painters at the time. Most of them were from Samokov where the artists of the Zograph (Painter) family, Zahari Zograph, Dimiter H. Zograph and Stanislav Dospevski, worked. In the 1840s they were joined by Ivan Obrazopissets and his son Nikola Obrazopissets. There was a group of artist of Bansko led by Dimiter Molerov, and many other unknown assistants. In the course of several years, at the cost of great effort, to quote Neophit Rilski, they completed the church interior walls, the domes, the facades hidden under the arcade and its small domes and produced 40 large icons for the iconostases and many other smaller ones.

The central iconostasis is the work of a group of woodcarvers who worked under the supervision of Atanas Teladour. They spent three years working on it, from 1839 to 1842, investing it with experience of several generations of carvers who founded the Bulgarian school of wood carving. The size and composition of the iconostasis are unrivaled in the Balkans. Same as architecture it follows the traditions of the school combining time-honoured element of space and as a unifying element emphasizing the centre of the basilica.

The carving which covers it from end to end is somewhat different from the carving on other iconostases. Here everything is bigger to harmonize with the large space inside the church. The carving differs from filigree miniature and is more like sculpted rather than carved.

The colours of this huge iconostasis are in harmony with the rich colours of the interior. In the dim church space frames by the painted walls, illuminated by the hundreds of candles burning in the candleholders, the iconostases’ gilded carved surfaces glitter and reflect upon the brightly coloured icons merging with the church space forming a complete artistic whole.

The monastery which was visited by many people had to provide accommodation and amenitites to the pilgrims. Some Bulgarian towns had their own guest rooms offering accommodation only to their notables. The Koprivshtitsa, Chirpan, Gabrovo and Teteven rooms have been presented to this day. They are in the north wing which is like an ethnographic exposition.

The monastery kitchen is on the ground floor of the same wing. The food for pilgrims was cooked there. The kitchen is large and has an overhead opening in the shape of the huge stone chimney which goes through all the levels to take smoke from the fire to the roof and out. It is in the shape of a hollow pyramid whose walls are built by octahedrons which grow smaller. The spaces between them have been filled up by semicircular arcs. The result is an ideally balanced self-supporting 22 meter high construction whose lightness and strength have been provided in the course of more than a century.


The prints, graphic impressions upon copper plates of wood, were of special significance for the popularization of the monastery and the history of its founder. There were two common types: St Ioan of Rila with miniature scenes from his life, and the monastery itself with the main sketae and metochia along the rive Rilska. Those prints were available even to the poorer pilgrims and thus popularized the Rila Monastery across the Balkan lands, serving as books for the illiterate who could learn from them the legends about the monastery and St Ivan of Rila. Initially the monastic community commissioned the prints in Moscow or Vienna. However, as demand for such prints was growing during the 19th century, a monk Kalislearn the craft of print-making and in 1856 the monastery acquired a large iron press and opened its own workshop for the production of prints. The output of the latter was large. Nevertheless the prints that it turned out were not inferior and some even could view with art primitives.

The printing press that the monastery bought the 1860s from Vienna is also on display in the monastery museum. The repositories keep most of handmade copper printing plates and prints produced with them.

The Rila Monastery museum collections trace its history over the countries and reveal its role in Bulgaria’s cultural history. In the course of the centuries the Rila Monastery maintained lively relations with the countries of the Eastern Orthodox world the metochia that were scattered in all Balkan Peninsula lands with Bulgarian population did educational work the monastery repository holds records, books, church plate, icons and gifts from pilgrims.

The Rila Monastery History Museum possesses a rich collection of extremely valuable exhibits both in the exposition halls and in the monastery vaults. The exhibits are thematically grouped and trace the evolution of the monastery and its cultural, religious and nation-consolidation role.

The exposition includes the early historical and ecclesiastical collection of the monastery, some books of the monastery library and many copies of wall paintings that have been destroyed, icons, prints, vestments and church plate.

In 1980 the International Federation of Travel Writers and Journalists (FIJEST) distinguished the Monastery with Golden Apple, the highest award for familiarization and cultural tourism. Ion 1983 the Rila Monastery was recorded on the List of World Cultural Heritage as a world cultural value. Again at that time it got the status of a national museum, so the government started subsiding the museum collections, conservation and restoration of the wall paintings and the architectural heritage. A decree of the Council of Ministries of the Republic of Bulgaria reinstated the monastic status of the Rila Monastery in 1991, so today it is again the largest religious centre in the Bulgarian lands.

Through „The Rila Monastery”, Prof. Dr Margarita Koeva Translation: Kostadin Marinov


Termíny

Day 0. Individual Arrivals

For those who want to spend a day exploring Sofia, we can arrange overnights in Sofia and airport transfers. Viď Practical Information for prices.

Day 1. Arrival to Sofia

Arrival to Sofia Airport. Group transfer from Sofia Airport to Plovdiv at latest 14:00. Check-in to your centrally located 3-star hotel. Guided walking tour of Plovdiv and Old Town Plovdiv (2h). Plovdiv is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Europe and one of the oldest cities in the world. The ancient city is also the cultural heart of Bulgaria. Plovdiv will be European Capital of Culture in 2019. Your first day in Bulgaria ends with a welcome dinner!

Accommodation: 3-star hotel in Plovdiv

Day 2. Wines from The Valley of Roses

Plovdiv – Chateau Copsa – Sopot Winery – Plovdiv

We start the day with a visit to Chateau Copsa located in the foothills of the gorgeous Balkan mountains. The chateau is a high-quality wine producer, and we get to try a native wine from the grape ‘Karlovski Misket’ during our tasting of 5 wines. The Misket grape is a native variety that takes its name from the nearby town of Karlovo. Continue our day in the Valley of Roses at a nearby winery – Sopot Winery. At Sopot Winery, we enjoy a lunch paired with wines before we take a walk through the winery. We head back to Plovdiv in the late afternoon. The evening is free to explore the city further at your own pace. Your tour leader will be happy to help with restaurant recommendations and bookings.

Accommodation: 3-star hotel in Plovdiv

Day 3. Exploring the Plovdiv Wine Region

Plovdiv – Manastira Winery – Villa Yustina – Plovdiv

A lot of fun wine adventures are planned today. You will learn about the region surrounding Plovdiv (The Thracian Valley), enjoy gorgeous views, visit 2 different wineries and taste a total of 10 wines. The first winery is Manastira Winery, which is located about 1 hour from Plovdiv in a scenic region known for its culture, history and wine making. The boutique wine cellar opens it doors and invites us into the modern estate for a memorable tour and tasting of 5 wines. Continue to Villa Yustina for a walk through the vineyard park and a spectacular wine-paired lunch in the charming tasting room. Return to Plovdiv. Your evening is free to enjoy. Your tour leader will be happy to help with restaurant recommendations and bookings.

Accommodation: 3-star hotel in Plovdiv

Day 4. Discover The South Sakar Micro-Region

Plovdiv – Bratanov Family Winery – Chateau Kolarovo – Villa Bassarea (Sakar Tasting Room) – Plovdiv

After breakfast, we head to the South Sakar micro region. The members of the Bratanov family welcome you into their little wine production facility to taste their wines. Get to know the Bratanov family and enjoy an exclusive tasting in the barrel room. Continue to Chateau Kolarovo to meet the winemaker and enjoy an unforgettable tasting of 5 wines from their impressive range of wines. Enjoy a traditional, village-style lunch. The last stop of the day is Villa Bassarea and the Sakar Tasting Room, where you will be greeted by the friendly team behind this boutique wine cellar and regional tasting room. Return to Plovdiv. Your evening is free to enjoy. Your tour leader will be happy to help with restaurant recommendations and bookings.

Accommodation: 3-star hotel in Plovdiv

Day 5. Entering The Struma Valley Wine Region

After breakfast, check out of the hotel and say goodbye to Plovdiv. Early departure to the region and town of Melnik. Our first stop is the charming family-owned winery – Kiossev Winery. Members of the Kiossev family will guide us through the history of their winery and wine-making family heritage. We enjoy a memorable lunch at the family winery accompanied by a selection of their wines. Continue to the Melnik region. Check-in to a traditional guesthouse. Free evening. There are several options for dinner. Your Tour Leader would be happy to point out the restaurants and assist with making reservations.

Accommodation: Traditional guesthouse in Melnik region

Day 6. All things Melnik

Melnik – Rupel – Villa Melnik – Rozhen Monastery – Melnik

Start the day by taking a guided stroll around the town of Melnik and learning more about the longstanding history, cultural heritage and wine making traditions. Visit a traditional merchant house from the 18th – 19th century. Head out to Rupel Winery for a tour and tasting of 5 wines from the cellar. Enjoy a lovely lunch in a nearby restaurant before continuing to Villa Melnik. The Zikatanovi family give a warm welcome to their family winery. Enjoy an informative walk of the winery and end the day with a fantastic tasting of 5 wines from their collection in the tasting room. In the late afternoon, we visit the picturesque Rozhen monastery – the best preserved monastery from the Middle Ages – before heading back to the guesthouse for some relaxation. Return to your guesthouse. Enjoy a free evening.

Accommodation: Traditional guesthouse in Melnik region

Day 7. Exploring the Melnik Wine Region

Melnik – Orbelia – Orbelus – Melnik

We end the tour on a high note. Today, we visit Orbelia Winery and meet the family behind this family-run winery located under the Belasitsa mountains and not too far from the Macedonian border. We enjoy a tour and a memorable tasting of a selection of their wines including a few very interesting wines from local grapes. It is time for lunch in a nearby restaurant before we continue to our next destination: Orbelus Winery – a 100% Organic Winery. We enjoy a tour of the cutting edge production process at Orbelus and end the tour with a tasting of a selection of wines in the charming tasting room. In the evening, we enjoy a farewell wine dinner.

Meals: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner

Accommodation: Traditional guesthouse/3-star hotel in Melnik

Day 8. Departure

After breakfast, check-out of your guesthouse. Transfer to Sofia Centre or Sofia Airport (3-3.5 hours). Option to extend stay in Sofia.

Included in the price of the tour:

  • All ground transportation mentioned in itinerary
  • Group transfer from/to Sofia Airport on Day 1 & Day 8
  • 4 nights in 3-star hotel in Plovdiv (standard shared double rooms)
  • 3 nights in traditional guesthouse/3-star hotel in Melnik (standard shared double rooms)
  • Meals as per itinerary
  • Tours and tastings at 11 wineries
  • Guided walking tour of Plovdiv and Old Plovdiv
  • Visits to the Rozhen Monastery & Traditional Merchant House in Melnik
  • English-speaking Tour leader from Bulgaria Wine Tours
  • Tour operator insurance from Armeec Insurance in case of non-provision of services

Not included in the tour price:

  • Flight tickets
  • Private transfers
  • Meals and beverages not mentioned in the tour description
  • Alcoholic beverages not mentioned in the tour description
  • Travel and medical insurance (please, consult your insurance provider)
  • Visa fees, if applicable
  • Extras and incidentals
  • Single room supplement
  • Tipy

* The BGN/EUR exchange rate is fixed at 1 EUR = 1.95583 BGN (http://www.bnb.bg/?toLang=_EN)

** Price per person is based on double occupancy e.g. two persons sharing a room. Solo traveler is obliged to pay a single supplement.

  • A non-refundable deposit of 30% of the total tour cost is required to be paid within 7 days of the invoice issue date unless otherwise agreed with the Company.
  • The balance of the amount due to the Company must be paid no later than 45 days before departure unless otherwise agreed with the Company.
  • In the event that the Client makes a booking within 45 days of departure of the tour, the full tour price must be paid up-front.

Payments are made in Euros or Bulgarian Leva.

Bank name: Raiffeisen Bank

Bank address: 1 Knyaginya Mariya Luiza Str., Plovdiv 4000

After making a booking and received a booking order, it is possible to pay for your tour by credit or debit card. For online payment (credit/ debit card), please go to http:// payment .bulgariawine tours.com/ and follow the steps.

We will provide confirmation once payment is received.

Počas Taste of Southern Bulgaria Group Tour, we will visit the following wineries:

Chateau Copsa

Chateau Copsa is situated in the foothills of the Balkan mountain (Stara Planina) nearby the town of Sopot. According to historians, just outside of today’s city of Sopot, there was once a Medieval town called Copsis, hence the name of the winery. The architecture of Chateau Copsa resembles a Medieval castle and is inspired by the preserved ruins of Copsis. The winery has also embraced the traditions of the area to use and experiment with the local variety Karlovski misket that only grows in this region. Tasting intriguing wines, dining at the modern gourmet restaurant and relaxing at the outdoor area make Chateau Copsa an ideal place for a peaceful time away from the city.

Wine cellar “Manastira” is specialized in producing high-quality wines. It is located in southern Bulgaria, 25 km. away Pazardzhik city, in a deep valley surrounded by the slopes of Sredna Gora, near Topolnitsa River, in the village of Lesichovo. The region is known for its rich culture and historical heritage. The following red grape varieties – Cabernet Sauvignon, Mavrud, Merlot, Syrah, Ancelotta and white grape varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Muscat..The winery and its vineyards are located in a region in Bulgaria, which is most suitable for grape growing – the Thracian Valley. It is famous for its millennial wine traditions. The climate conditions of the region provide a good opportunity for getting rich and deep wines of “Cabernet Sauvignon” and “Mavrud”. The unique combination of climate and soil characteristics favours for the excellent quality of the wines produced in this area. White and red grapes are cultivated in the district, but the red ones dominate in quantity.

Sopot Winery

Sopot Winery is located in the historic town of Sopot and is surrounded by the Balkan Mountains and the Sredna Gora Mountains. Not only are the mountains views beautiful, they create a special micro-climate that is favorable to vinegrowing. The area is called Tragata, which lends its name to the guesthouse located adjacent to the winery and to the wine brand. The winery was opened in 2013 and is owned by the Shikov family. The oenologist is Georgi Chorbadzhakov. At Sopot winery, you will find Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Sauvignon Blanc. The restaurant at the winery serves exceptional local Bulgarian food and the hotel garden is a relaxing spot to enjoy a glass of wine and good food in beautiful natural surroundings.

Villa Yustina

Villa Yustina is located in the village of Ustina, about 25 km from Plovdiv. The name of the winery, as well as the village, originates from emperor Justinian I who was an emperor of the East Roman empire in the 1st century AD and who commissioned a fort to be built on the hills by the present village. Villa Yustina began its journey in the wine world in 2006 and soon after in 2011 its main oenologist received the price “Oenologist of the year”. Villa Yustina is a proud birthplace of one of the best cuvees of the local varieties Mavrud and Rubin. Villa Yustina will enchant you with warm hospitality, the beautiful vine park and other outdoor recreational possibilities and if you are lucky enough to meet the owner Milko Tsvetkov, you will also make a lifelong wine friend.

Chateau Kolarovo

Chateau Kolarovo was established in 2009 by Stoyan Stoyanov. Originally from Stara Zagora, his family heritage brought him to the area and urged him to produce wine. As the name suggests Chateau Kolarovo is located in the village of Kolarovo in the southern Sakar mountains. The village of Kolarovo has about nine permanent inhabitants however, there are four wineries in the village. This fact hints towards the fact that the area is highly suitable for viticulture. Chateau Kolarovo does not dazzle with appearance – the building where the winery is at present used to be an old cheese-manufacturing facility. It is quite possible that you might pass by Chateau Kolarovo without realizing that this is the actual winery. However, once you try the wine that is being produced here, it will certainly leave an impression on you and you will be coming back for more.

Villa Bassarea

Villa Bassarea was established in 2014 in Harmanli by three friends (Todor Bratanov, Kiril Bratanov and winemaker Kamen Koev). They were driven by a common dream – to produce small batches of wines with distinctive character from local grapes combining modern technology with the traditions of our ancestors. For the making of each of the wines, grapes from the region (mainly near the village of Izvorovo), cultivated by prominent local winegrowers, are used. Some vineyards are more than forty years old, which provides the distinctive character of wines produced. Classis technologies are used with an estreme amount of hard manual labor. The capacity of the cellar is 70 tons and they produce three main series (brands): “Labis”, “Villa Bassarea” and “Image”. The name of the cellar comes from “Bassareus”, which is the Thracian nickname of Dionysus. One of their limited edition wines with only 400 bottles is called “Saratok”and honors the first Thracian ruler with his portrait image on a coin pictures alongside a vine and a grape. On a visit to Villa Bassarea, it is highly likely to meet the owners and winemakers. The newly opened Sakar Tasting Room is a joint project led by the team behind Villa Bassarea.

Bratanov Family Winery

Bratanov is a typical family winery. It was created through the hard work of a father and his sons. The recently deceased Mr. Stoycho Bratanov and his two sons, who co-manage the winery along with other family members, descend from a long line of winemakers. His great grandfather owned vineyards in the very same vineyards, where the current vineyards lie. Situated almost at the point where the Maritsa River divides the Rhodope Mountain from the Sakar Mountain, the winery has boldly entered the Bulgarian wine market. Some of their wines have been awarded medals from prestigious competitions such as Decanter and the Balkan International Wine Competition. Such recognition has not shifted the focus and ambition of Bratanov Family Winery – it still remains very much a family affair and everyone is deeply connected to the winery. Do not be surprised when the Bratanovi Family welcome you to their winery as if they are welcoming you to into their home.

Kiossev Boutique Wine Cellar

A family-run boutique wine cellar situated in the family home in a picturesque village. The wine cellar produces high-quality wines and has a high focus on local grapes such as Broadleaved Melnik, Melnik 55 and Melnik Ruen. The wine cellar is run by a father and his son continuing the family tradition of winemaking. The wines are limited series of only 300 – 3000 bottles per series. The serene village surrounded by mountains, the unique wines and the warm welcome of a wine making family makes this winery an unforgettable one.

The small Rupel winery is located in the famous Melnik region that has been producing and trading wine for millennia. Wine making is more than a tradition in this region. It is a way of life. The family winery has vineyards that were re-established around the year 2006. The vineyards are characterized by rich soil characteristics and hot climatic conditions with influence from the Aegean sea giving the entire area a Mediterranean-like environment. They winery has French, Bulgarian and Italian varieties, and produce trendy, high-quality wines. The team behind the winery are passionate about what they do. The winery is also dedicated to welcoming visitors for tastings, and makes you feel very welcome.

Villa Melnik

The Melnik region has been and still is one of the most famous wine regions in Bulgaria. Each year Winston Churchill himself used to purchase 500 litres of the traditional Melnik variety – Shiroka Melnishka loza. With such a history, it is not surprising that one of the newest wineries in the region – Villa Melnik – has quickly gained recognition for its high-quality wine, beautiful winery and warm hospitality. Villa Melnik has even dared to produce wine with its own grown Mavrud variety – traditionally the undisputed master of another wine region in Bulgaria – the Thracian valley. Such boldness and distinct character are typical for Villa Melnik, which makes a visit to the winery indispensable for every wine explorer of the area.

Surrounded by seven mountains in the Melnik region in southwestern Bulgaria lies the organic winery Orbelus. Not only is the wine-making process organic but also the architecture of the winery reduces the input of resources such as lighting, heating and cooling. This provides for a wine experience in full unison with nature. These environmental considerations do not come at the expense of the wine quality Orbelus has already gained international recognition, including a gold medal from the prestigious Millésime Bio Challenge. Staying true to its Melnik origins, Orbelus emphasizes the local varieties and presents them in a different way to its visitors – the organic way.

Arrival/Departure

  • Group transfer on Day 1 is from Sofia Airport to Plovdiv at 14:00. If you arrive in the early morning, you have the option of going into Sofia Centre to explore. If you arrive a day or two before to visit Sofia, we can help with hotel and transfer arrangements.
  • A representative from Bulgaria Wine Tours will meet you in the arrivals hall (terminal 1 & 2) carrying a Bulgaria Wine Tours sign.
  • Group transfer on Day 8 is just after breakfast – 10:00. The arrival time in Sofia is 13:00-13:30. You may be dropped off at Sofia airport or Sofia centre. Please inform us of your preference when you book.
  • For late arrivals on Day 1 or early departures on Day 8, it is necessary to pre-book a private transfer or plan your arrival at the relevant location. We can assist you with that if you wish so.
  • Transport time between Sofia and Plovdiv is 1.5-2 hours.
  • Transport time between Melnik and Sofia is about 3-3.5 hours.

Visa Requirements

  • In general, EU citizens do not require visas to travel to Bulgaria. Citizens of some other countries also do not need visas to travel to Bulgaria. For visa requirements to enter Bulgaria, please consult the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs at: http://www.mfa.bg/en/pages/109/index.html or the respective institutions in your country of residence.
  • The tour does not require any special medical condition or fitness level. The tour does not involve intensive walking, hiking, or other physical effort apart from the normal efforts for sightseeing.

Additional services or surcharges

  • Please contact us for prices and information on private transfers from Sofia Airport to Plovdiv and/or private transfers from Melnik to Sofia.
  • Extra Nights in Sofia (pre- or post tour) are available upon request:
    • €50 per person/night in a 3-star hotel incl. breakfast (shared standard double-room)
    • €10 per person for an airport meet & greet and transfer to hotel (minimum 2 people required per transfer)*
    • Airport transfer can only be booked in connection with a hotel booking

    For any questions, please contact us at: +359 888 487 113 or email: [email protected] or contact us through the Facebook page – Bulgaria Wine Tours.

    Most importantly, we will do anything we can to make the tour a pleasant and memorable experience for you.


    Masked men tie up priest, attempt robbery at Bulgarian monastery

    Several arrests have been made in connection with an attempted robbery at Bulgaria&rsquos Rozhen Monastery on Tuesday, reports the Sofia Globe.

    The Rozhen Monastery of the Nativity of the Mother of God is one of few well-preserved medieval Bulgarian monasteries and is the largest in the Pirin Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria.

    As the Sofia Globe reports, six masked men entered the monastery at about 8:00 PM on Tuesday. They tied up the priest who was present and began digging into the wall behind the iconostasis in the monastery church with picks and spades. Two of the men stood guard while the other four dug into the wall.

    Local legend holds that there is treasure hidden somewhere in the monastery, but the men left after about half an hour with nothing but the priest&rsquos cell phone. Thankfully, they did not take or damage any of the valuable icons, including the wonderworking copy of the Iveron Icon of the Mother of God, or any of the cash donations to the monastery. P. Teofil was shaken but uninjured.

    As Bulgarian Orthodox site Dobrotoliubie reports, the Nevrokop Diocese of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church made a statement about the incident:

    With pain and anxiety, we report that in the evening of 09.18.2018 an attack was carried out on the Rozhen Monastery of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos, and physical violence against a priest in the monastery by a group of unknown perpetrators has been carried out and investigations by the competent authorities are currently underway, so access to the monastery will be limited indefinitely.

    The faces of two of the men were captured on the monastery&rsquos security cameras, which aided police in making arrests in the case in Kurdzhali, Sofia, Petrich, and Sandanski.

    Elena Gotseva of the Regional Prosecutor&rsquos Office in Sandanski said that pre-trial proceedings have been initiated but no criminal charges have yet been pressed.


    Pozri si video: Melnik, Rozhen Monastery, Smolare Waterfall, Bulgary, Macedonian - dzień 9 (Septembra 2022).


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